Chapter 12 2/25/2013 6:14:00 PM
four main approaches to understanding personality—trait-biological,
psychodynamic, humanistic-existential, and social cognitive
Most personality psychologists focus on specific, psychologically
meaningful individual differences—characteristics such as honesty or
anxiousness or moodiness.
psychology, personality refers to a person’s characteristic style of
behaving, thinking, and feeling.
explanations of personality differences are concerned with (1) prior
events that can shape an individual’s personality or (2) anticipated
events that might motivate the person to reveal particular personality
Psychologist have figure out ways to measure personality the most
famous one is self-report—a series of answers to a questionnaire that
asks people to indicate the extent to which sets of statements or
adjectives accurately describe their own behavior or mental state.
Measuring specific groups in order to figure out certain things, this test
also discorervy personality traits they didn’t know the test is know
as Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2),a well-
researched, clincal questionnaire used to assess personality and
psychological problems. The MMPI-2 consists of more than 500
second major class of tools for evaluating personality, the projective
Probably the best-known technique is the Rorschach Inkblot Test IS
losing its popularity due to the fact that its theroical based examiner and
the person giving the test has not approach or understadnign of what the
ink plot is.
A more popular version of this test is Thematic Apperception Test
(TAT)is a projective personality test in which respondents reveal
underlying motives, concerns, and the way they see the social world
through the stories they make up about ambiguous pictures of people.
they seem to consisting the same themes and therefore the interrupting
there own full picture image. TAT is subjective and has its own interruption, and therefore it can only
be used as a way to understand a person, personal life not so much their
Two general classes of personality tests are personality inventories, such
as the MMPI-2, and projective techniques, such as the Rorschach Inkblot
Test and the TAT.
One way to describe personality is by using a trait which was the
approach of Gordon Allport (1937), one of the first trait theorists
As a rule, researchers examining traits as causes have used personality
inventories to measure them, whereas those examining traits as motives
have more often used projective tests.
The more genes your share with someone the more similar your
personality will be.
The study of twins supports the BIG FIVE traits.
Animals are said to have personality too.
Brain traits can always have simulation on the brain, Eysenck stated this
example using introverts and extraverts.
The trait approach tries to identify personality dimensions that can be
used to characterize an individual’s behavior. Researchers have
attempted to boil down the potentially huge array of things people do,
think, and feel into some core personality dimensions.
Many personality psychologists currently focus on the Big Five personality
factors: conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness to
experience, and extraversion.
To address the question of why traits arise, trait theorists often adopt a
biological perspective, seeing personality largely as the result of genetic
influences on brain mechanisms
Feud used the term psychoanalysis to refer to both personality and this
method of treating it.
Emotional difficulties Freud proposed that the mind consists of three
independent, interacting, and often conflicting systems: the id, the ego,
and the superego.
Freud said between these three interaction which ever is more dominate
will consist & which type of personality you contain.
Freud said that the dynamics among the id, ego, and superego are
largely governed by anxiety when ego receives an “alert signal” in the form of anxiety, it launches into a defensive position in an attempt to
ward off the anxiety. According to Freud, it first tries repression,
Through this we classify them as defense machism the most common
are rationalization, reaction formation, projection, regression,
Freud believed that the personality results from forces that are largely
unconscious, shaped by the interplay among id, ego, and superego.
Defense mechanisms are methods the mind may use to reduce anxiety
generated from unacceptable impulses.
Freud also believed that the developing person passes through a series of
psychosexual stages and that individuals who fail to progress beyond one
of the stages have corresponding personality traits.
Humanistic believe that people who active there goals that match their
ability it allows them to be happy. something to challenging makes
you have anxiety, something less challenging creates boredom and
Existential believe that if they seek things on more existence it creates
The humanistic-existential approach to personality grew out of
philosophical traditions that are at odds with most of the assumptions of
the trait and psychoanalytic approaches.
Humanists see personality as directed by an inherent striving toward self-
actualization and development of our unique human potentials.
Existentialists focus on angst and the defensive response people often
have to questions about the meaning of life and the inevitability of death.
Michael a psychologist that our personality and actions depend on our
Kelly proposed that different personal constructs (construals) are the key
to personality differences
The social cognitive approach focuses on personality as arising from
individuals’ behavior in situations. Situations and persons mean different
things to different people, as suggested by Kelly’s personal construct
According to social cognitive personality theorists, the same person may
behave differently in different situations but should behave consistently in
similar situations. People translate their goals into behavior through outcome expectancies,
their assumptions about the likely consequences of future behaviors.
Markus called the traits people use to define themselves self-schemas
The self-concept is a person’s k