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Chapter 12.docx

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Steve Joordens

Chapter 12 2/25/2013 6:14:00 PM Key Concepts  four main approaches to understanding personality—trait-biological, psychodynamic, humanistic-existential, and social cognitive  Most personality psychologists focus on specific, psychologically meaningful individual differences—characteristics such as honesty or anxiousness or moodiness.  psychology, personality refers to a person’s characteristic style of behaving, thinking, and feeling.  explanations of personality differences are concerned with (1) prior events that can shape an individual’s personality or (2) anticipated events that might motivate the person to reveal particular personality characteristics  Psychologist have figure out ways to measure personality the most famous one is self-report—a series of answers to a questionnaire that asks people to indicate the extent to which sets of statements or adjectives accurately describe their own behavior or mental state.  Measuring specific groups in order to figure out certain things, this test also discorervy personality traits they didn’t know the test is know as Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2),a well- researched, clincal questionnaire used to assess personality and psychological problems. The MMPI-2 consists of more than 500 descriptive statements.  second major class of tools for evaluating personality, the projective techniques,  Probably the best-known technique is the Rorschach Inkblot Test IS losing its popularity due to the fact that its theroical based examiner and the person giving the test has not approach or understadnign of what the ink plot is.  A more popular version of this test is Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)is a projective personality test in which respondents reveal underlying motives, concerns, and the way they see the social world through the stories they make up about ambiguous pictures of people.  they seem to consisting the same themes and therefore the interrupting there own full picture image.  TAT is subjective and has its own interruption, and therefore it can only be used as a way to understand a person, personal life not so much their psychology attributes.  Two general classes of personality tests are personality inventories, such as the MMPI-2, and projective techniques, such as the Rorschach Inkblot Test and the TAT.  One way to describe personality is by using a trait which was the approach of Gordon Allport (1937), one of the first trait theorists  As a rule, researchers examining traits as causes have used personality inventories to measure them, whereas those examining traits as motives have more often used projective tests.  The more genes your share with someone the more similar your personality will be.  The study of twins supports the BIG FIVE traits.  Animals are said to have personality too.  Brain traits can always have simulation on the brain, Eysenck stated this example using introverts and extraverts.  The trait approach tries to identify personality dimensions that can be used to characterize an individual’s behavior. Researchers have attempted to boil down the potentially huge array of things people do, think, and feel into some core personality dimensions.  Many personality psychologists currently focus on the Big Five personality factors: conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness to experience, and extraversion.  To address the question of why traits arise, trait theorists often adopt a biological perspective, seeing personality largely as the result of genetic influences on brain mechanisms  Feud used the term psychoanalysis to refer to both personality and this method of treating it.  Emotional difficulties  Freud proposed that the mind consists of three independent, interacting, and often conflicting systems: the id, the ego, and the superego.  Freud said between these three interaction which ever is more dominate will consist & which type of personality you contain.  Freud said that the dynamics among the id, ego, and superego are largely governed by anxiety  when ego receives an “alert signal” in the form of anxiety, it launches into a defensive position in an attempt to ward off the anxiety. According to Freud, it first tries repression,  Through this we classify them as defense machism  the most common are rationalization, reaction formation, projection, regression, identification, sublimation.  Freud believed that the personality results from forces that are largely unconscious, shaped by the interplay among id, ego, and superego.  Defense mechanisms are methods the mind may use to reduce anxiety generated from unacceptable impulses.  Freud also believed that the developing person passes through a series of psychosexual stages and that individuals who fail to progress beyond one of the stages have corresponding personality traits.  Humanistic believe that people who active there goals that match their ability it allows them to be happy.  something to challenging makes you have anxiety, something less challenging creates boredom and depression.  Existential believe that if they seek things on more existence it creates anxiety.  The humanistic-existential approach to personality grew out of philosophical traditions that are at odds with most of the assumptions of the trait and psychoanalytic approaches.  Humanists see personality as directed by an inherent striving toward self- actualization and development of our unique human potentials.  Existentialists focus on angst and the defensive response people often have to questions about the meaning of life and the inevitability of death.  Michael a psychologist  that our personality and actions depend on our situation.  Kelly proposed that different personal constructs (construals) are the key to personality differences  The social cognitive approach focuses on personality as arising from individuals’ behavior in situations. Situations and persons mean different things to different people, as suggested by Kelly’s personal construct theory.  According to social cognitive personality theorists, the same person may behave differently in different situations but should behave consistently in similar situations.  People translate their goals into behavior through outcome expectancies, their assumptions about the likely consequences of future behaviors.  Markus called the traits people use to define themselves self-schemas  The self-concept is a person’s k
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