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Chapter 15.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 15: Treatment of Psychological Disorders 4/11/2013 12:44:00 PM Key Concepts o Estimates suggest that 1 in 5 people suffer from mental disorders. o Only 30% people of people actually go see a doctor and that usualy is a family doctor rather than a specialist. o Barries arise for the treatment that is may be embrassing and that it may be too expensive. o When seek help they oftern don’t find the best help. o Treatments can be divided broadly into two kinds: psychotherapy, in which a person interacts with a psychotherapist, and medical or biological treatments, in which the mental disorder is treated with drugs or surgery. Summary o Mental illness is often misunderstood, and because of this, it too often goes untreated. o Untreated mental illness can be extremely costly, affecting an individual’s ability to function and also causing social and financial burdens. o Many people who suffer from mental illness do not get the help they need; they may be unaware that they have a problem, they may face obstacles to getting treatment, or they simply may not know where to turn. o Treatments include psychotherapy, which focuses on the mind, and medical and biological methods, which focus on the brain and body. o Goal of psychoanalysis is for the client to understand the unconscious in a process Freud called developing insight  Free Association. In free association, the client reports every thought that enters the mind, without censorship or filtering. This strategy allows the stream of consciousness to flow unimpeded.  Dream Analysis. Psychoanalysis treats dreams as metaphors that symbolize unconscious conflicts or wishes and that contain disguised clues that the therapist can help the client understand.  Interpretation. This is the process by which the therapist deciphers the meaning (e.g., unconscious impulses or fantasies) underlying what the client says and does. Interpretation is used throughout therapy, during free association and dream analysis, as well as in other aspects of the treatment.  Analysis of Resistance. In the process of “trying on” different interpretations of the client’s thoughts and actions, the analyst may suggest an interpretation that the client finds particularly unacceptable o Sex and aggression was a theory; that the disorder that happen because of sex and aggression.  Sigmund Freud. o Psychodynamic approaches emphasize unconscious drives toward sex and aggression, as we noted earlier. o Many other psychologist broke away from this by adding theory, change, lack of skill, interpersonal relations. o psychodynamic psychotherapy, which emphasizes early developmental processes as the source of psychological dysfunction, Behavior Approach:  behavioral and cognitive treatments emphasize the current factors that contribute to the problem  three examples of behavior therapy techniques in action o Eliminating Unwanted Behaviors: M aking the consequences less reinforcing (no candy) and more punishing (a period of time-out in the car while the parent watches from nearby rather than providing a rush of attention) could eliminate the problem behavior. o Promoting Desired Behaviors. In a psychiatric hospital, patients may sometimes become unresponsive and apathetic, withdrawing from social interaction and failing to participate in treatment programs o Reducing Unwanted Emotional Responses. One of the most powerful ways to reduce fear is by gradual exposure to the feared object or situation, a behavioral method originated by psychiatrist Joseph Wolpe (1958). Cognitive Therapy:  focuses on helping a client identify and correct any distorted thinking about self, others, or the world  Cognitive restricting is a way to examine the belief and prove that the client is a certain way.  As we as reduce the emotions that are unwanted.  Some forms of cognitive therapy include techniques for coping with unwanted thoughts and feelings, techniques that resemble meditation Cognitive Behavioral Therapy :  It is problem focuses and action oriented and the pscholigts tires to assists them to sop the cetin mood.  CPT; transparent I that nothing is with held from the client and therefore they known what they have been treated with. Humanistic and existential therapies  Humanistic and existential therapies assume that human nature is generally positive, and they emphasize the natural tendency of each individual to strive for personal improvement.  The person centered theory mirrors what the client says.  Creating empathy and creating a trusting environment. Gestalt Therapy:  Is something to brig awareness and create a warm environment.  Emphasizes the behavior and situation that happen now.  As well as putting their feelings into actions. Couples Therapy:  Is the main concept of where both parenter show up and as well focus on the members together. Family Therapy:  Therapy within the whole family organization and interactions.  Interactions within all individuals. Group Therapy:  It is seen to bring the people together who have similar issues.  This is helpful because human live off each other to know that their not alone in their suffering.  Group therapy may have problems because survival of the fittest will happen in the group, leader, followers, and in-between.  Some may not get enough attention. Summary  Psychodynamic therapies, including psychoanalysis, emphasize helping clients gain insight into their unconscious conflicts.  Behavior therapy applies learning principles to specific behavior problems; cognitive therapy aims at challenging irrational thoughts. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) merges these approaches.  Humanistic approaches (e.g., person-centered therapy) and existential approaches (e.g., Gestalt therapy) focus on helping people to develop a sense of personal worth.  Group therapies target couples, families, or groups of clients brought together for the purpose of therapy. Medicines for Psychology disorders  Dopamine drugs are good but the relive some symptoms.  But, the
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