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PSYA02 mTuner 2.docx

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Kriste O' Neil

mTuner 2 – Chapters 11 and 12 1) According to the textbook, if a person exhibits the tendency toward political conservatism, obedience to authority, and conformity, it can be said that this person has the trait of ____. Right-wing authoritarianism. 2) According to the lectures, parents have been put into “four quadrants”. A parent who is permissive is a parent who is ___ in love and ___ in discipline. High; low. 3) When Miranda was pregnant, she exercised regularly and ate healthy foods, but smoked one pack of cigarettes per day. When her baby was born, her baby had a very low birth weight. As the child was growing up, this child had deficits in attention and learning. Miranda’s child was likely affected by her ___. Smoking. Explanation: Babies whose mothers smoke have lower birth weights and more likely to have perceptual and attentional problems in childhood. 4) The ___ content of a dream refers to its actual storyline, whereas the ___ content which reflects the actual no-cleansed motivation for the dream. Manifest; latent. 5) In regards to rat maze study discussed in Lecture 5, the genetically engineered “maze-bright” rats always made fewer errors than the “maze-dull” rats, but a higher quality environment also predicted fewer errors on the part of both rats. This graph suggests that…that intelligent behaviour is the product of both genetic and environmental factors. 6) Whereas ___ is generally assessed by tests of vocabulary, factual information, and so on, ___ is generally assessed by tests that pose novel, abstract problems that must be solved under time pressure. Crystallized intelligence, fluid intelligence. Explanation: Crystallized intelligence involves the retention and utilization of previously learned information. Fluid intelligence involves the processing of novel information. 7) Across a variety of tasks, older adult brains show bilateral activation and young adult brains show unilateral activation. According to the textbook, what is an explanation for this? Older brains compensate for the declining abilities of one neural structure by calling on other neural structures for help. 8) What cognitive development stage is characterized by children’s ability to think, reason, and operate about abstract concepts? Formal operational. Explanation: In the formal operational stage, children gain the ability to think in an abstract manner about concept such as freedom, love, hate…and the capacity for higher-order reasoning. 9) According to Gordon Allport, ___ are traits that dominate an individual’s whole life. Cardinal traits. Explanation: Cardinal traits are traits that dominate an individual’s whole life, to the point the person becomes known specifically for these traits. 10) According to the lecture, what is the first milestone for infant motor development? Sitting without support. Explanation: Infants tend to reach the first motor milestone by the time they are 3 months old. By this time, they are able to sit without support. 11) What is the most important factor that influences the age at which a child acquires theory of mind? Language. 12) What is the proximodistal rule? The tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the centre to the periphery. Explanation: Also known as “inside-to-outside” rule. 13) Consider the following: being excessively nice to someone you dislike, or being cold and indifferent toward someone to whom you are strongly attracted. These are examples of which defense mechanism? Reaction formation. Explanation: Reaction formation is a defense mechanism that involves unconsciously replacing threatening inner wishes and fantasies with an exaggerated version of their opposite. Examples include being excessively nice to someone you dislike, finding yourself very worried and protective about a person you have thoughts of hurting, or being cold and indifferent toward someone to whom you are strongly attracted. 14) What is the correlation between intelligence and job performance? r=.53. Explanation: intelligence test scores are also among the best predictors of how well employees perform in their jobs, and job performances correlates more highly with intelligence (r=.53) than with factors such as performance during a job interview (r=.14) or education (r=.10). The conclusion to be drawn from almost a century of research on the topic is that “for hiring employees without previous experience in the job, the most valid measure of future performance and learning is general mental ability.” 15) Why is h2 higher among wealthy kinds than among poor kinds? Wealthy children have fairly similar environments. 16) According to Erik Erikson, at what stage in human development do we tend to have love relationships as a key event, and “intimacy vs. isolation” as a crisis? Young adulthood. 17) According to Freud, what is the desire to obtain immediate gratification in whatever form it may take? Pleasure principle. 18) In older adults, the ability to hold information declines ___ the ability to retrieve information. More than. Explanation: Older adults show a much more pronounced decline on tests of working memory (the ability to hold information) than on tests of long-term memory (the ability to retrieve information). 19) What we think about ourselves is referred to as our self-___ and how we feel about ourselves is referred to as our self-___. Concept; esteem. 20) According to the textbook, why are human beings born with underdeveloped brains? So that the newborn can pass through the mother’s birth canal, and that the newborn’s brain can develop in the external environment. Explanation: If a newborn’s head were closer to its adult size, the baby could not pass through its mother’s birth canal. Second, one of our species’ greatest talents is its ability to adapt to a wide range of novel environments that differ in terms of climate, social structure, and so on. Rather than arriving in the world with a fully developed brain that may or may not meet the requirements of its environment, human beings arrive with brains that do much of their developing within the very environments in which they will function. 21) Which of Freud’s systems of the mind would impel you to, if hungry, start grabbing food off people’s plates upon entering a restaurant? The id. Explanation: According to Freud’s systems of the mind, acting on impulse (ie. Grabbing food off people’s plates) is characteristic of the id. 22) ___ indicate how ___ can be combined to produce speech sounds. Phonological rules, phonemes. 23) Chronologically, in what order do Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development occur? Sensorimotor, pr
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