mTuner 2 – Chapters 11 and 12
1) According to the textbook, if a person exhibits the tendency toward political
conservatism, obedience to authority, and conformity, it can be said that this
person has the trait of ____. Right-wing authoritarianism.
2) According to the lectures, parents have been put into “four quadrants”. A parent
who is permissive is a parent who is ___ in love and ___ in discipline. High; low.
3) When Miranda was pregnant, she exercised regularly and ate healthy foods, but
smoked one pack of cigarettes per day. When her baby was born, her baby had
a very low birth weight. As the child was growing up, this child had deficits in
attention and learning. Miranda’s child was likely affected by her ___. Smoking.
Explanation: Babies whose mothers smoke have lower birth weights and
more likely to have perceptual and attentional problems in childhood.
4) The ___ content of a dream refers to its actual storyline, whereas the ___ content
which reflects the actual no-cleansed motivation for the dream. Manifest; latent.
5) In regards to rat maze study discussed in Lecture 5, the genetically engineered
“maze-bright” rats always made fewer errors than the “maze-dull” rats, but a
higher quality environment also predicted fewer errors on the part of both rats.
This graph suggests that…that intelligent behaviour is the product of both genetic
and environmental factors.
6) Whereas ___ is generally assessed by tests of vocabulary, factual information,
and so on, ___ is generally assessed by tests that pose novel, abstract problems
that must be solved under time pressure. Crystallized intelligence, fluid
intelligence. Explanation: Crystallized intelligence involves the retention and
utilization of previously learned information. Fluid intelligence involves the
processing of novel information.
7) Across a variety of tasks, older adult brains show bilateral activation and young
adult brains show unilateral activation. According to the textbook, what is an
explanation for this? Older brains compensate for the declining abilities of one
neural structure by calling on other neural structures for help.
8) What cognitive development stage is characterized by children’s ability to think,
reason, and operate about abstract concepts? Formal operational. Explanation:
In the formal operational stage, children gain the ability to think in an
abstract manner about concept such as freedom, love, hate…and the
capacity for higher-order reasoning.
9) According to Gordon Allport, ___ are traits that dominate an individual’s whole
life. Cardinal traits. Explanation: Cardinal traits are traits that dominate an
individual’s whole life, to the point the person becomes known specifically
for these traits.
10) According to the lecture, what is the first milestone for infant motor
development? Sitting without support. Explanation: Infants tend to reach the first motor milestone by the time they are 3 months old. By this time, they
are able to sit without support.
11) What is the most important factor that influences the age at which a child
acquires theory of mind? Language.
12) What is the proximodistal rule? The tendency for motor skills to emerge in
sequence from the centre to the periphery. Explanation: Also known as
13) Consider the following: being excessively nice to someone you dislike, or being
cold and indifferent toward someone to whom you are strongly attracted. These
are examples of which defense mechanism? Reaction formation. Explanation:
Reaction formation is a defense mechanism that involves unconsciously
replacing threatening inner wishes and fantasies with an exaggerated
version of their opposite. Examples include being excessively nice to
someone you dislike, finding yourself very worried and protective about a
person you have thoughts of hurting, or being cold and indifferent toward
someone to whom you are strongly attracted.
14) What is the correlation between intelligence and job performance? r=.53.
Explanation: intelligence test scores are also among the best predictors of
how well employees perform in their jobs, and job performances correlates
more highly with intelligence (r=.53) than with factors such as performance
during a job interview (r=.14) or education (r=.10). The conclusion to be
drawn from almost a century of research on the topic is that “for hiring
employees without previous experience in the job, the most valid measure
of future performance and learning is general mental ability.”
15) Why is h2 higher among wealthy kinds than among poor kinds? Wealthy
children have fairly similar environments.
16) According to Erik Erikson, at what stage in human development do we tend to
have love relationships as a key event, and “intimacy vs. isolation” as a crisis?
17) According to Freud, what is the desire to obtain immediate gratification in
whatever form it may take? Pleasure principle.
18) In older adults, the ability to hold information declines ___ the ability to retrieve
information. More than. Explanation: Older adults show a much more
pronounced decline on tests of working memory (the ability to hold
information) than on tests of long-term memory (the ability to retrieve
19) What we think about ourselves is referred to as our self-___ and how we feel
about ourselves is referred to as our self-___. Concept; esteem.
20) According to the textbook, why are human beings born with underdeveloped
brains? So that the newborn can pass through the mother’s birth canal, and that the newborn’s brain can develop in the external environment. Explanation: If a
newborn’s head were closer to its adult size, the baby could not pass
through its mother’s birth canal. Second, one of our species’ greatest
talents is its ability to adapt to a wide range of novel environments that
differ in terms of climate, social structure, and so on. Rather than arriving
in the world with a fully developed brain that may or may not meet the
requirements of its environment, human beings arrive with brains that do
much of their developing within the very environments in which they will
21) Which of Freud’s systems of the mind would impel you to, if hungry, start
grabbing food off people’s plates upon entering a restaurant? The id.
Explanation: According to Freud’s systems of the mind, acting on impulse
(ie. Grabbing food off people’s plates) is characteristic of the id.
22) ___ indicate how ___ can be combined to produce speech sounds. Phonological
23) Chronologically, in what order do Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development
occur? Sensorimotor, pr