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PSYA02 Chapter 13.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 13: Social Psychology - Social Psychology is the study of the causes and consequences of sociality SOCIAL BEHAVIOR: INTERACTING WITH PEOPLE - we are the most ultra social species allowed us to out-survive and out-reproduce. This is because we are deeply social Survival: The Struggle for Resources - Scarce resources is a continuous problem - aggression is a behavior whose purpose is to harm another - Frustration aggression hypothesis, which suggests that animals aggress when and only when their goals are frustrated - the real cause of aggressive behavior is negative affects. The single best predictor of aggression is gender - people with high testosterones walk with a chin up and with purpose. Testosterones also lower people’s sensitively to signs to threat - one way elicit aggression in men is to challenge their status and dominance. In the US, people in the south are more aggressive when they’re status is challenged - Cooperation is behavior by two or more individuals that lead to mutual benefit - A group is a collection of people who have something in common that distinguishes them from others - Prejudice is a positive or negative evaluation of another person based on their group membership - Discrimination is a positive or negative behavior toward another person based on their group membership - why do we behave so badly when we assemble in groups: one reason is deindividuation, which occurs when immersion in a group causes people to become less concerned with their personal values. Second, reason is diffusion of responsibilities, occurs when individuals feel diminished responsibility for their actions because they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way - Cooperation is a way to solve the problem of scarce resources - Alruism is a behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself - altruism is common among animals as they give alarm sounds to each other when they see a predator. This puts them at risk however, they save the lives of the peers - Kin Selection is the process -s by which evolution selects for individuals who cooperate with their relatives - Reciprocal altruism is behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in future Reproduction: The quest for immorality - all animals have two goals which is to survive and reproduce - human beings tend to select their partners, and women tend to more selective than men. One reason is that sex is more costly for women than men. Also, women produce a small amount of eggs in a lifetime. - sex is costly for women than men and this is why women are choosier - one of the best predictors of any kind of interpersonal relationship is the physical proximity - proximity also provides motivation - Mere exposure effect is the tendency for the frequency of exposure to a stimulus to increase liking - when people are in the same place at the same time they are most likely to know about each others personal qualities and most importantly their physical features - different cultures may have different standards of beauty, they also have a lot in common. Like body shape, symmetry, and age. - we are more attracted to people with good genes or who will be good parents - we marry people who are similar to us like statues, religious backgrounds - passionate love is an expe
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