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PSYA02H3: Lecture Notes Ch1-6

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Steve Joordens

Helen  Li   PSYA02H3   LECTURE1:  Measuring  Intelligence     Studying  Individual  Differences   • Most  psychological  research  aims  to  understand  the  “average”  human   …  this  is  sometimes  called  nomothetic  research   o On  average,  how  much  can  a  human  being  remember?   Perception?  Attention?       •  But  some  areas  of  research  tries  to  understand  why  and  how  some   humans  differ  from  others  …  this  research  is  said  to  focus  on   “individual  differences”  work   o What  makes  up  a  persons  personality?       Intelligence   Most  societies  believe  it  is  in  the  interest  of  the  populace  to  financial  support   the  education  of  it’s  citizens  …  an  educated  (intelligent?)  populace  leads  to  a   better  country  …  more  innovation,  stronger  economy  …  power   • “Political  baggage”       An  ability  to  measure  “intelligence”  might  be  beneficial  in  a  couple  of  ways  …   1. It  allows  you  to  assess  whether  certain  educational  approaches  lead  to   higher  levels  of  success   2. It  may  allow  one  to  tailor  a  child’s  education  to  their  current  abilities     But  how  does  one  measure  intelligence?   • Can  we  change  intelligence?  (Governments  =>  Make  citizens   more  intelligence  to  educate/  prosper)   o  Want  to  know  if  we’re  succeeding     What  is  intelligence?   • Albert  Einstein  vs  Steve  Jobs     ▯ Steve  Jobs  created  devices  that  we  all  used,  but  we   didn’t  think  we  wanted  it  10  years  ago  =>  diff  kind   of  intelligence       A  Brief  History   Galton,  a  cousin  of  Darwin,  was  into  measuring  humans  in  every  way  possible   …  including  measuring  their  ability  to  make  sensory  discriminations,  which   he  assumed,  was  linked  to  intellectual  ability   • Are  there  humans  that  are  somehow  genetically  superior?  =>   Tried  to  access  peoples  intellectual  abilities  (cognitive)     o Link  to  normal  distributions  (bell  shaped  graph)     Helen  Li   PSYA02H3   o A  lot  of  things  are  normally  distributed  =>  cognitive   abilities  (give  people  small  tasts  -­‐>  press  buttons;  quickly)   o Neural  impulses  =>  maybe  that  some  people  are  better   wired,  can  transfer  information  faster  (speed  of  which   people  can  respond  =>  effective  in  the  world)   • Measured  intelligence  as  the  speed  of  info   processing     However,  the  measure  of  intelligence  really  took  off  with  the  work  of  Binet   who  thought  that  intelligence  was  not  reflected  in  abilities  to  make  sensory   discriminations  but,  instead,  was  reflected  by  performance  on  a  variety  of   paper-­‐and-­‐pencil  tests  targeting  such  things  as  imagery,  attention,   comprehension,  imagination,  judgements  of  visual  space,  memory,  etc…).   • Binet  worked  for  French  government     • French  government  interested  in  educating  well   o Figure  out  children’s  with  diff  intellectual  capabilities   (support  gifted  to  max  potential)       The  Binet-­‐Simon  test  (1905)  was  the  first  such  test.     The  Binet-­‐Simon  Scale  was  revised  in  1916  and  was  then  called  the  Stanford-­‐ Binet  Scale.    With  that  version  of  the  scale,  the  IQ  of  a  person  represented   their  mental  age  (as  suggested  by  the  test)  divided  by  their  chronological  age   …  then  multiplied  by  100.  The  test  was  revised  again  in  1985,  and  the  way   that  IQ  is  measured  was  also  changed.    The  test  was  set  up  in  a  way  such  that   the  average  score  is  100,  and  the  standard  deviation  is  16.   So  now,  a  person’s  IQ  is  simply  their  score  on  the  test.     Helen  Li   PSYA02H3           Interpreting  Test  Scores   In  order  to  make  any  sense  of  an  individual’s  score,  it  is  necessary  to  first  give   the  test  to  many  many  people  in  order  to  find  the  mean  and  standard   deviation  of  the  test  for  humans  in  general  …  this  is  called,  establishing  the   norms  for  the  test.   • Randomly  get  people  to  do  the  test  and  get  the  average  person   for  the  new  test       Often  it  is  necessary  to  acquire  such  norms  separately  for  different  age   groups  so  that  a  person’s  score  can  be  compared  to  a  set  of  peers  of  the  same   age.       One  issue  that  has  arisen  when  such  comparisons  are  made  is  that  it  is   important  that  the  individual  is  from  the  same  cultural  group  as  the  norms   were  gathered  from.                     Helen  Li   PSYA02H3   Binet-­‐Simon         • Vast  majority  is  average  68%  of  population  (few  genius,  few   idiots)     Verbal  vs.  Nonverbal   (Remember  Validity?)   Helen  Li   PSYA02H3       • Segregation  between  African  Americans  &  American  schools   were  different  (some  wanted  them  to  integrate)   ▯ Gave  black/  white  them  the  binet-­‐simon  test  and   white  scored  higher     • Teachers  will  have  to  teach  down  to  the   blacks  so  the  white  wont  be  intellectual   stimulated  because  of  this  data     • Psychologist  found  that  the  problems  were  worded  in  white   cultural  language     o Re-­‐worded  to  African  American  cultural  language  and  re-­‐ did  the  study  =>  blacks  did  better  (understand  better)                                 Helen  Li   PSYA02H3   Raven’s  Progressive  Matrices         • Culture/  language  free  problems     o Not  really  using  words   o Easy-­‐difficult     o How  high/  good  a  student  can  a  student  go  into  the  complex   problems?     LECTURE  2:  Where  Does  Intelligence  Come  From   • Asians  -­‐>  Caucasian  -­‐>  African  (Cognitive  abilities)  &  physical  abilities   other  way  around   • Should  we  not  even  study  intelligence?     o Einstein  just  wanted  to  find  stuff  out  but  didn’t  think  of  potential   implications  of  finding  other  stuff  (nuclear)     Are  some  things  not  meant  to  be  studies  scientifically?   o Philip  Rushton  …  and  the  refutation  thereof     Intelligence  as  Evidence  of  Intelligent  Design   o Say  that  intelligence  (our  abilities)  as  evidence  of  intelligence   design       Is  Intelligence  Even  a  Single  Thing?   • We  often  use  the  term  intelligence  as  if  we  were  talking  about  a  single   characteristic  a  person  possesses  …  we  typically  talk  of  someone  being   intelligent  or  not  …  period.   • But  let’s  consider  another  “characteristic”  for  a  moment  …  athletic   capability.    We  could  ask  someone  to  perform  a  number  of  tasks  and,   based  on  their  performance,  come  up  with  a  measure  of  athletic  ability.   Helen  Li   PSYA02H3   • What  would  you  expect  if  you  did  this?   • Would  the  person  with  the  best  athletic  ability  be  the  fastest  runner?     Thurstone  Seven  –  Cattell  Two   • Some  studies  using  the  factor  analytic  approach  ended  up  finding  many   different  factors  related  to  intelligence   o For  example,  Thurstone  (1938)  found  7  factors;  verbal   comprehension,  verbal  fluency,  number,  spatial  visualization,   memory,  reasoning,  and  perceptual  speed  (eg  Galton);  how   quickly  you  can  perceive  something.   o However,  when  a  factor  analysis  (tests  they  do  &  try  to  find   correlations  &  figure  how  many  components  of  intellectual   abilities  there  are  &  what  those  components  are)  was  performed   on  Thurstone’s  factors   ▯ Cattell  found  that  two  factors  underlie  the  7  factors.   ▯ Imagine  someone  a  kid  who  is  born  into  location  where   they  don’t  have  good  access  to  education  vs  who  is     • According  to  Cattell,  two  kinds  of  intelligence  (first   kid  can  be  naturally  gifted  but  cannot  do  complex   math  for  example  because  of  lack  of  education)   o He  labelled  these  two  factors  fluid  intelligence  (g )f  and  crystal   intelligence  (g ),  concepts  which  are  still  discussed  quite   c frequently  in  current  intelligence  research.   o Fluid  intelligence  (g )  f­‐>  Natural  aptitude/  ability     ▯ Prof  Muhammad  (never  had  formal  education  but  was   given  at  managing  camels;  he  exceled)   ▯ Perceptual  speed,  etc     o Crystal  intelligence  (g )  -c‐>  This  type  of  intelligence  is  based   upon  facts  and  rooted  in  experiences     ▯ As  we  age  and  accumulate  new  knowledge  and   understanding     The  Role  of  Genetics   Helen  Li   PSYA02H3     • How  much  of  something,  like  intelligence  is  genetically  determined?   And  how  much  is  environment?     o Nature  vs.  Nurture     o Every  intellectual/  cognitive  ability  reflects  interactions  of  these   two  things     The  Role  of  Environment   • One  of  the  best  things  to  do  if  you  have  younger  people  is  to  read  to   them  =>  surrounding  them  with  thoughts/  ideas/  stories,  they  will  gain   that  skill   • Uncle  Darwin  (scientist)  -­‐>  can  affect  his  nephews/  nieces  while  talking   in  scientific  language  all  the  time   • Study  replications     o Took  rats  pups  and  raise  them  in  some  (two)  environments,  one   with  a  lot  of  stuff  can  play/  experiment  with,  the  other   impoverished  (empty  cage)   o Finally,  test  them  with  mazes  and  such  -­‐>  rats  in  the  better   environment  did  better   • Socialism  (debate)     o Poor  vs  rich  people   o Best  way  to  break  that  is  to  help  poor  people  for  their   generations  to  come  (break  the  cycle)   Genetics  &  Environment   • Took  older  rats  to  learn  mazes  &  found  out  certain  rats  (maze  bright   rats)  were  smart  and  some  weren’t  (maze  dull  rats)  -­‐>  we  pair  the  dulls   with  dulls  to  off  springs  (Select  breeding)     • What  if  we  manipulate  the  environment?  Rich  environment  -­‐>  less   mistakes   Helen  Li   PSYA02H3   • Genetic  link  of  some  sort  with  parent  -­‐>  child       • Anyone  of  your  traits,  including  personality  but  intelligence  as  well  is  a   direct  result  of  the  combination  of  your  genetic  inheritance  (what  your   parents  gave  you  in  a  sense  and  the  environment  in  which  you  were   raised)     o Prof  Joordens  parents  were  born  in  Holland  (war)     ▯ People  were  oppressed  &  Nazis  were  kicked  out  of   Holland  eventually   ▯ Natural  for  children  not  to  always  go  to  school,  even  if   they  did  it  was  more  practical     ▯ More  fluid  (natural  way)  than  crystal     LECTURE  4:  Development:  The  Early  Years   • The  uniqueness  of  the  human  infant   • No  other  animal  is  born  so  helpless,  so  utterly  dependent  on  its   parents.   o Sea  turtles  (lay  millions  of  eggs  in  a  specific  hole/  bay  -­‐>  she   leaves  after)  -­‐>  baby  sea  turtles  (very  pathetic  at  day  1)     • A  lot  of  physical  development  occurs  prior  to  birth,  and  it  continues   until  long  thereafter   o Need  others  to  survive     • But  perhaps  as  important,  and  even  more  interesting,  is  that  the   physical  dependence
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