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PSYA02 mTuner 4.docx

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Kriste O' Neil

mTuner 4 – Chapters 15 and 16 1. Glass and Singer (1972) found bursts of loud noise caused participants performed poorly when asked to solve puzzles. This decline in performance was mitigated by telling the participants that ____. The noise could be stopped by the push of a button. Explanation: this dramatic decline in performance was prevented among participants who were told during the noise period that they could stop the noise just by pushing a button. Access to the “panic button” shielded them from the detrimental effects of the noise. 2. When a person is feeling sick, she is typically inactive, low in energy and eating less. This sickness response is triggered by the immune response via the release of ___. Cytokines. Explanation: Administration of cytokines to an animal can artificially create the sickness response, and administration of drugs that oppose the action of cytokines can block the sickness response even during an ongoing infection. 3. A treatment that involves placing a powerful pulsed magnet over a person’s scalp, which alters neuronal activity in the brain is known as: Transcranial magnetic stimulation. 4. What are the two general classes of personality tests? Personality inventories and projective techniques. Explanation: Two general classes of personality tests are personality inventories, such as the MMPI-2, and projective techniques, such as the Rorschach Inkblot Test and the TAT. 5. People seem to ignore information about base rates. This is related to the… representative heuristic. Explanation: People seem to ignore information about base rate, or the existing probability of an event, basing their judgements on similarities to categories. Researchers call this the representative heuristic – making a probability judgement by comparing an object or event to a prototype of the object or event. 6. Lobotomies are the surgical destruction of specific brain areas to treat psychological disorders. Their main side effects include ___ and ____. Lethargy, impulsivity. Explanation: Although some lobotomies produced highly successful results, significant side effects such as extreme lethargy or childlike impulsivity detracted from these benefits. 7. According to Freud, the ____ is the component of personality, developed through contact with the external world that enables us to deal with life’s practical demands. Ego. 8. What coping method for stress involves finding creative ways to think about a stressor to reduce its threat? Reframing. 9. Studies found that mortality varied precisely with civil service grade: the higher the classification, the lower the rates of death, regardless of cause (Marmot et al., 1991). These studies suggest that stress is related to ill health by compromising the ____. Immune response. Explanation: There is also evidence that the stress of living life at the bottom levels of society increases risk of infections by weakening the immune system. 10. Jenny is very paranoid about her health. She often stays awake at night staring at a mole on her arm, convinced that it is cancerous. This happens despite several doctors reassuring her that it is just a mole. Based on this description, Jenny may be suffering from what condition? Hypochondriasis. Explanation: Hypochondriasis is a psychological disorder in which a person is preoccupied with minor symptoms and develops an exaggerated belief that the symptoms signify a life-threatening illness. 11. Some studies comparing people with and without PTSC have found that those with PTSD have reduced volume along which brain structure? Hippocampus. Explanation: Research using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine brain structures has found one possible indication of such sensitivity. In some studies comparing people without and with PTSD, the hippocampus was found to be smaller in volume among individuals with PTSD (stein et al., 1997). 12. The behavioural effects of getting sick (eg., fatigue and loss of appetite) are triggered by cytokines. Cytokines act on which part of the central nervous system? The vagus nerve. Explanation: Cytokines do not enter the brain, but they activate the vagus nerve that runs from the intestines, stomach, and chest to the brain and induce the “I am infected” message (Goehler et al., 2000). 13. Friedrich Nietzsche once said, “What does not kill me makes me stronger”. This famous saying is countered by whose theory of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS)? Hans Selye. Explanation: Although Friedrich Nietzsche said that quote, Selye found that severe stress takes a toll on the body. He saw the GAS occurring in three phases. 14. Suzy has just begun to use single words. Suzy is likely to be at least ___ months old. 10 months. 15. Joint attention allows children to learn from others. When a 12 month old infant interacts with an adult (a) who then looks at an object (b), the infant will typically ____, but only if the adult’s eyes are ____. Look at the same object; open. 16. The frustration-aggression hypothesis states that: animals aggress when and only when their goals are frustrated. 17. A monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) is a medication that prevents the enzyme monoamine oxidase from breaking down neurotransmitters such as ___, ____ and ____. Norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine. 18. Tricyclic antidepressant medications block the reuptake of ____ and _____. Norepinephrine, serotonin. Explanation: these medications block the reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin, thereby increasing the amount of neurotransmitter in the synaptic space between neurons. 19. Collective unconscious is defined as: the culturally determined symbols and myths that are shared among all people. 20. In psychoanalysis, when the analyst begins to assume a major significance in the client’s life and the client reacts to the analyst based on unconscious childhood fantasies,
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