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PSYA02H3: Lectures Notes Ch 7-13

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Steve Joordens

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Helen  Li   PSYA02H3   LECTURE  7:  Emotion   The  Relevance  of  Emotion   • Emotions  clearly  influence  us  in  powerful  Psychological  ways  and  to  a  large   extent  this  influence  is,  in  my  opinion,  underrepresented  in  the  text  and  the   course   • To  some  extent,  emotion  is  another  enemy  of  rational  thought  and  rational   thoughts  ability  to  guide  behaviour   o Rational/  emotional  decisions  go  together  (get  best  of  both  worth)     ▯ Quite  often  -­‐>  battle   • Why  the  link  to  motivation?    What  motivates  us,  also  tends  to  “move  us”   emotionally     o There  is  some  sort  of  association  between  the  two  (motivation  &   emotion)  …  though  again  in  my  opinion  the  exact  nature  of  that   association  is  not  completely  understood   ▯ Why  drove  you  to  come  to  class?  Reward?  -­‐>  Movement     • Three  aspects  of  emotion     1) Behaviour   a. “We  wear  our  emotions  on  our  bodies/  faces”     i. Tired  vs.  happy  (e.g.  shoulders)     2) Autonomic     a. Works  with  cognitive   3) Hormonal     a.  Mechanism  of  emotions     i. Release  of  hormones  -­‐>  sympathetic  system   Conditioned  Emotional  Responses   • John  B.  Watson  -­‐>  behavioural  approach  -­‐>  using  the  experiment  to  show   that  (made  baby  scared  of  sound)     o Little  Albert     ▯ As  baby  approaches  the  critter  (made  loud  noise)     ▯ Made  the  baby  fear  the  critter  (associated  of  the  thing  that   scared  it)  -­‐>  conditioned  emotional  response       • Hippocampus  -­‐>memory     o Damaged  -­‐>  tend  to  never  lay  down  new  conscious  memory  -­‐>   important  to  conscious  memory   ▯ Forget  what  happened  then  next  day     • Amygdala  -­‐>  spider  sense     o If  something  causes  you  fear  -­‐>  causes  your  sympathetic  to  act  up  -­‐>   senses  danger   1)  I  have  to  deal  with  the  situation  now     o Activating  parasympathetic  system  now     2)  I  don’t  want  to  be  in  this  situation  again   Helen  Li   PSYA02H3   o Reason  for  memory  system  is  kicking  in  -­‐>  storing/  avoid  danger   again   The  Control  of  Emotional  Responding   • The  role  of  serotonin  with  respect  to  moderating  aggression,  and  perhaps   emotional  control  in  general  (Prozac,  X)   • Role  of  the  ventral  prefrontal  cortex  with  respect  to  emotional  regulation   o We  cant  always  show  our  emotions  -­‐>  poker     o We’re  always  lying,  deceiving   o Animals  show  emotion…  rationality?     ▯ Rob  ford  diff  in  council  (doesn’t  swear  -­‐>  control)   • Phineas  Gage   o Has  a  rod  through  his  head     o Railway  worker     o Going  to  holes  &  tamping  down  with  a  rod  -­‐>  blew  up  and  rod  blew  up   through  his  face  -­‐>  ventral  medial  pre-­‐frontal  cortex     ▯ Able  to  go  back  to  work  after  -­‐>  he  changed  -­‐>  nice  -­‐>  jerk     Emotional  Reactions  and  Moral  Judgment     o Personal  Watson  desires-­‐>  want  to  be  liked  and  accepted  in  the  community  -­‐ >  social     o Proper  behavior  -­‐>  morals  &  ethics     o Train  coming,  two  paths  -­‐>  one  switch  that  only  you  have  -­‐>  sacrifice  one   person  or  four  lives?     o Train  coming  -­‐>  pushing  fat  guy  off  tracks  to  save  4  people?   Expressions  of  Emotion     o Lie  to  me  (tv  show)  -­‐>  Paul  Ekman  &  his  wife     o Details  of  emotional  states  -­‐>  mimic  all  the  expressions     o You  can  control  your  emotions   Culture,  and  Species?   • Isolated  villages     Helen  Li   PSYA02H3   o Universal  (we  can  recognize  emotions  -­‐>  built  into  us)     • Animal  kingdom     o Dogs  -­‐>  ears  &  tail?  Anger?  How  is  it  feeling?       Cognition  &  Emotion     • How  do  emotions  play  out?     o When  do  feel  fear?     Emotional  Regulation   • Heart  rate  monitor  when  skydiving  (sympathetic  system)     o Feeling  air  pushing  against  your  body  -­‐>  “you  will  die”  moment   stimulus       LECTURE  8:  Motivation   The  Concept  of  Homeostasis   • System  Variable  (temperature,  or  hunger)   o When  we’re  really  hot,  temperature  rises  -­‐>  we  would  get  pushed  to   cool  down  -­‐>  link  to  human  motivation     • Set  Point  (20°or  what?)   • Detector  Variable  (current  temperature,  or  level  of  hunger)   • Correctional  Mechanism  (regulatory  behaviours)   • Negative  Feedback   Drive  Reduction  Hypothesis   • Problems  as  a  Scientific  Theory   • How  does  one  objectively  define  and  measure  a  drive?    How  hungry  are  you   …  how  …  frustrated  are  you?    What  drive  brings  you  to  class?   • Some  things  we  enjoy  doing,  increase  arousal,  but  don’t  seem  to  reduce  any   drive  …  foreplay  anyone?   Helen  Li   PSYA02H3       Optimum  Level  Theory     • Middle  point  where  performance  is  optimal     o Drive  motivation   Perseverance   • Intermittent  Reinforcement   o Never  know  when  it’s  coming  (powerful)   o Golf  -­‐>  some  shots  are  really  good/  others  bad     o Gambling   • Over-­‐justification  Hypothesis   o Worried  about  students  not  finishing  high  school  -­‐>  paying  students   to  go  to  class  &  to  study     ▯ Intrinsic  motivation  –  doing  something  because  you  personally   get  something  internally  -­‐>  makes  you  feel  good     ▯ Extrinsic  motivation  –  you  get  something  externally  -­‐>  money   • Learned  Helplessness   o Modelling  depression  (go  in  the  corner)   o Believed  that  it’s  helpless  -­‐>  deflates  motivation       Hierarchy  of  Needs   Helen  Li   PSYA02H3       LECTURE  9:  Sex,  Aggression  &  Eating   Three  Motivation   Relevant  Research  Contexts   • Eating   • Sex   • Aggression   Sexual  Hormones  &  Behaviour   • Androgens,  and  testosterone  in  specific,  have  both  organizational  effects  and   activational  effects  for  males.   • For  men,  testosterone  decreases  with  age  (boo!)  resulting  in  decreased   interest  in  sex,  irritability  &  depression   • Giving  men  testosterone  increases  sexual  interest  and  ability  (and   aggression)     o Though  placebos  do  so  to,  somewhat   • Affects  sexual  motivation,  but  not  orientation     o Homesexual  men  given  testosterone  will  want  more  homosexual  sex   • For  non-­‐human  primates,  females  only  initiate  sexual  activity  around   ovation,  when  estradiol  and  progesterone  are  high   • For  humans  (and  dolphins  actually)  this  is  not  the  case     o But  there  still  seems  to  be  a  link  between  hormonal  levels  and  sexual   desire   o Helps  to  build  family  bond     o Female  dolphins/  bonobos  -­‐>  for  pleasure  (all  the  time)     • Studies  of  married  couples   • Weird  “exotic  dancer”  study   • “Date  Rape”  drugs   Sexual  Orientation   • Sexual  orientation  appears  determined  prior  to  adolescence  and  sexual   activity   • Sexual  orientation    -­‐>  (what  gender  attracts  you)   • Sexual  identity  -­‐>  (what  you  feel  like  -­‐>  female  or  male)   • Most  homosexuals  have  engaged  in  heterosexual  experiences,  but  found   them  unrewarding   o New  Brunswick     Helen  Li   PSYA02H3   o Homosexual  women  -­‐>  very  different  when  they  hit  puberty  (wear   baggy  clothes)   • There  is  a  strong  relation  between  sexual  non-­‐conformity  in  childhood  and   the  development  of  homosexuality     LECTURE  10   Types  vs.  Traits   • Horoscope  -­‐>  says  a  lot  about  your  personality       • Nature  vs  nurture?     o Your  personality  is  similar  to  your  parents     So  Allport,  What  are  These  Traits?   • Gordon  All  port  -­‐>  wanted  to  know  personality  traits  -­‐>  wanted  every  word   to  describe  a  person  (adjectives)     o Didn’t  use  Google     o +  Another  17,  932  words     Gordon  Allport’s  Trait  Theory     • Cardinal  traits  -­‐>  traits  that  dominate  an  individuals  whole  life,  often  to  the   point  that  the  person  becomes  known  specifically  for  these  traits     o Dominant  with  your  life     ▯ Mother  Theresa  -­‐>  charity     ▯ Martin  Luther  King  -­‐>  quality,  respect  for  people     ▯ Einstein  -­‐>  intelligence     ▯ Narcissus  -­‐>  narcissism  (thought  he  was  so  beautiful  and  when   he  looked  into  water,  he  turned  to  stone)   • Central  traits  -­‐>  general  characteristics  that  form  the  basic  foundations  of   personality     o Carry  with  them  all  the  time  -­‐>  generous,  nice  (essential  aspect  of  who   they  are)     • Secondary  traits  -­‐>  traits  are  sometimes  to  aptitudes  or  preferences  and   often  appear  only  in  certain  situations  or  under  specific  circumstances     Cattell’s  16  Traits   Helen  Li   PSYA02H3     • End  up  with  a  squiggly  line  -­‐>  connect  up  the  dots     Eysenck’s  Three  Factors  NEO-­‐PI   • He  bumped  it  into  3     • Introverted/  extroverted     • Psychotic  -­‐>  break  rules/  do  things  they’re  not  supposed  to     • Would  want  surgeon  to  be  emotionally  stable  -­‐>  not  same  person  to  party   with     The  Big  Five  NEO-­‐PI-­‐R     • Programmer  -­‐>  don’t  want  them  to  be  extroverted  vs  someone  in  the  front   desk   • Agreeableness  -­‐>  easy  going,  likeable,  positive     • Is  emotional  stability  an  illusion?     Helen  Li   PSYA02H3   o When  psychologists  test  your  personality  tests  your  “outer”   personality  that  you  portray  to  the  world     The  Dark  Triad     • Criminal  population  vs.  normal  population     o Criminals  have  these  traits     • Most  criminals  think  about  themselves     o Own  succession   • Machiavellianism     o Devising  plans  to  where  you  want  to  be     o Hurting  5  people  to  get  that  promotion  (plan  to  do  it)       • Joker   • Paul  Bernardo     o Went  to  UTSC     o Did  a  lot  of  horrible  things  in  valley     ▯ Has  fans  that  love  him..     ▯ Mind  blowing     LECTURE  11:     Personality  Development:  The  Psychodynamic  View   Sigmund  Freud   • 1856  –  1939   • Trained  as  a  physiologist  and  an  expert  in  observation     o Which  marked  his  work  thereafter   • Fascinated  by  ailments  that  seemed  to  have  no  physiological  cause   • Worked  with  Charcot  on  hypnotism   • Came  to  believe  that  all  human  behaviour  is  motivated  by  instinctual  desires   that  provide  psychic  energy   o These  drives  could  be  unconscious  as  well  as  conscious   Psychodynamics   • Instinct  (ID)   • Reason  (EGO)   • Conscience  (SUPEREGO)   • The  manner  in  which  our  internal  energies  are  released  determines  our   personalities   The  ID  (instinct)  =>  the  “it”     • “…  the  dark,  inaccessible  part  of  our  personality  …  a  cauldron  full  of  seething   excitations  …  filled  with  energy  reaching  it  from  the  instincts,  but  it  has  no   Helen  Li
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