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Lecture 21.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

PSYA02 The Social Animal - The effect that humans have with each other - We do not live life by ourselves - The part that studies the social interactions of humans = social psychology Humans are social creatures… even those of us who strive to be unique still want to be a part of a group. In fact, several experiments show that humans have a strong tendency to conform when they find themselves in groups… - The idea behind the need to belong - Solomon Ash experimented a lot with this - Confederates: people who seem to be subjects but who work with the experimenter in some way - Conformity was found between the people who were saying the answers between them - The candid camera also found conformity between people (or peer pressure) A step more extreme… - Milgram’s (1963) study is perhaps one of the most shocking of all psychological experiments - Milgram thought that the acts that Germany did during WWII said a lot about the people of Germany - The experiment was done first on Americans - The teacher and the learner’s shock (confederate was the student, the other student was the teacher) - Punishment on learning (electrodes were placed on learner’s hands) (the teacher was placed in the other room and placed in front of a device that gives different among shocks, if learner got an answer wrong, the teacher was to shock and increase the voltage) (time comes in where the shocks are too much for the learner and the experimenter said to continue, and the teacher did continue) - 65% of American people went on to the full level under the original setup (unethical because the “teachers” felt hurt with the knowledge that he/she tortured another person because of an authority figure “told” them to) (strangely enough, it was an “positive” experiment) (as the setting was done in different ways (ex: office building instead, teacher and learner in same room, teacher chooses shock level) the percentage went down) - Take home message: not only friends but authority figures also have the same power, if they said for us to do something, even if it’s unethical or illegal, we would do it; humanity learned a lot about themselves; context and authority both played factors Prejudice – hard to record because of subjective answers (opposite of schema theory) - Ingroup – “Us” – people with whom one shares a common identity - Outgroup – “Them” – those perceived as different or apart from on
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