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Lecture

Psy100-Chapter 10.doc

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Department
Psychology
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PSYA02H3
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All

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Chapter 10Emotion and HealthEmotion affectfeelings that involve subjective evaluation physiological process and cognitive beliefsImmediate responses to environmental eventsEmotion and cognition are completely intertwinedMooddiffuse and longlasting emotional states that influence rather than interrupt thought and behaviour Reflects perceptions of whether have the personal resources necessary to meet environmental demands If moods negative then experience stressStressa pattern of behavioural and physiological responses to events that match or exceed an organisms abilities Health physiology the field of concerned with the events that affect physical wellbeing How are emotions adaptive Negative and positive experiences guide behaviour that increases the probability of surviving and reproducing Emotionsemotional responses are adaptive because they prepare and guide behaviors Provide information about the importance of stimuli to personal goals and then prepare people for actions aimed at helping achieve those goals People interpret facial expressions of emotion to predict the behaviour of other peopleFacial expressions communicate emotionAt birth infant can display joy interest disgust and pain By two months anger and sadness By six months fear Lower half of face more important than upper half of face in communicating emotionHowever eyes are also very imp If people are presented with pictures of just eyes or just mouths and asked to identify emotions expressed more accurate using the eyes But if whole face presented mouth is more important Emotions provide info to others as how people are feeling and prompt them to respond in accordance with others wants and needs Some facial expressions are universal most strongly for happiness and least strongly for fear and disgust therefore biologically based Display rules cultural rules that govern how and when emotions are exhibitedThese are learned via socialization Darwin argued that the face innately communicates emotion to others and that these communications are understandable by all people regardless of cultureGeneral support for crosscultural congruence in identification of some facial expressions most strongly for happiness and least strongly for fear and disgustDifferences in display rules help to explain cultural stereotypes Explains why identification of facial expressions much better within than between culturesWomen tend to display more emotions but not those that pertain to dominance This does not mean they feel more emotion In Western society women tend to be better than men at articulating their emotions perhaps due to upbringing which might account for their more intense descriptionsEmotions serve cognitive functionsEmotions affect and are part of thinking Peoples moods can alter ongoing mental processesPeople in good moods tend to use heuristic thinking which allows for quick and efficient decisions Positive moods also facilitate creative elaborate responses to challenging problems and motivate persistence Recent theory proposes that increased dopamine improves cognition Positive affect leads to higher levels of dopamine production which subsequently leads to heightened activation of dopamine receptors in other brain areasDecision makingAnticipated emotional states are important in decision making Emotions are heuristic guides Have direct effect that does NOT depend on cognitive processes Events that are recent or vivid have strongest influence on behavior When cognition and emotion are in conflict emotions typically have more impact on decisionsAffectasinformation theorypeople use their current emotional state to make judgments and appraisals even if they do not know the source of their moods ask about overall life satisfaction However if people are made aware of the source of their happiness tell them they might be in good mood because its sunny outside their feelings no longer influence judgments Somatic markersmost selfregulatory actions and decisions are affected by the bodily reactions somatic markers that arise from contemplating their outcomes Bodily reactions that arise from the emotional evaluation of an actions consequenceseg gut feeling when contemplate an action you experience an emotional reaction based in part on your expectation of the outcome which is determined by past history damage to frontal lobes have absence of somatic markers tend not to use past outcomes to regulate future behaviorEmotions capture attentionemotional information is highly adaptive and therefore captures attention Emotional Stroop task shows that cognitive processes are biased towards emotional stimulioWords that are emotionally arousing eg anger are more difficult to override than are neutral words Attentional bias for encoding affective stimulioEmotional info reduces attentional blink occurs because attention was focused on the first word and there is a temporary impairment in processing subsequent words However if second word contains emotional information eg rape then people are much better at remembering it oThe emotional content of the word captures attention and reduces the attentional blinkEmotions aid memory better remember items for which there was an emotional reaction Link between emotionality and memory tested in rememberknow procedure in which you are asked about your recognition of an item from a previous trial know is familiar remember is accompanied by sensory emotional detail Highly NEGATIVE photos were more likely to be identified as remember than neutral or positive onesCreating stress or drugs that produce arousal enhances memoryNorepinephrine enhances memory for emotional eventsBeta blockers which are used to control blood pressure block norepinephrine receptors which impairs the ability to recognize emotional expressions oMight help prevent PTSD those who were given beta blockers within 6 hours of a traumatic event had fewer symptoms of PTSD a month later than those given placeboEmotions strengthen interpersonal relations Interpersonal emotions considered in terms of evolutionary need of humans to belong to social groups Those who drained resources or threatened group stability kicked out Anxiety serves as alarm function that motivates people to act according to social normsEvolved mechanisms that facilitate interaction
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