Lecture 2: Psychology - LANGUAGE
What are t he Building Block of Language?
- Language can be broken down into elements at several levels. It is made up of letters. -
Written language. Not ever one can read & write but they can speak. In this chapter we
will look at spoken language.
- e.g. THe sentence: The players talked to the fans.
- Phonemes: Smallest unit of sound in language. Written in code. We can decompose the
code. e.g. da pley ar z tak t tuw da f a n z [bits & pieces of sound].
- Phones clumped together are called Morphemes: It give the meaning to the language.
e.g. The play er s talk ed to the fan s.
- Sever Morphemes are brought together to produce word. e.g.
- Words come together to produce phrases. Then phrases together talked to the fans The
players talked to produce sentences.
- [Insert the table].
- It is the smallest significant units of sound in a language.
- To be producing speech we need energy. Column of air in our lungs that originates in
lungs. Producing air pressure that sends air out of our mouth. Air- the column of air is
coming out as sub-pressure & energy. It produces sound waves. Movement of lips,
tongue & vocal cord (produces voicing). THese are the elements that produces speech.
Column of air articulated by the movement of lips, tongue & vocal cord. 2 types of Plosive:
- e.g. /p, h/ Bilabial Plosive: Bilabial -Involves both lips to produce the phonemes.
Plosive part refers to that there is an explosion involved. We hold the pressure with the
lips & there is mini explosion to produce the sound /p & b/. They differ in 1 small
characteristic. Which is at what point your vocal cord produce voicing (vibrates to
produce sounds). In case of /p/ our voicing starts at 6 milliseconds- with a blink of an
eye. Computers are designed to produce the manipulation of when our vocal cord start
to vibrate. When making it shorter & shorter 0.4 seconds we don’t here the correct
sound. It depends on how far the onset is to here. Tongue is lower down for Bilabial
Plosive & doing not that much.
- e.g. /s, z/ Alveolar Fricatives: Refers to alveolar ridge (upper tongue where the ridge is).
- Alveolar refers to: alveolar ridge- upper teeth where that tongue is.
- Fricatives revers to: to that there is a friction while producing the sound.
- To find the different: touch your throat & say ssssssh- fells nothing. Now make zzzzz-
vocal cords are involved at we feel it.
- Linguist have studied this in details. A phonetic expert will look at all this (lips, tongue,
making a explosive sound, vocal cord etc).
Interesting Facts about Phonemes:
- There are exact 49 phonemes phonemes involved in production of English language.
- COnfusing: “O” in Hot & Cold- confuses ESL folks. (This is why there are only 26
alphabets but some letters serves as different phonemes and makes up to 40). - Normal rate of speech is 180 words per minutes with 14 phonemes per second.
- e.g. The play er s. Here 3 morphemes & 3elements of meaning in the word player.
[Play- the act of playing, er- It is a person playing, the individual, s- there are several
- Talk ed - has suffix. It has 2 morphemes.
Lexicon or Vocabulary:
- When we get closer to the words, we get closer to the vocabulary. They way linguist
refers to words are LEXICON- which are the root words in our vocabulary.
- Fact: English speaking HIgh school students have vocabulary of 60,000 wo