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psych Lecture 2.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough

Lecture 2: Psychology - LANGUAGE What are t he Building Block of Language? - Language can be broken down into elements at several levels. It is made up of letters. - Written language. Not ever one can read & write but they can speak. In this chapter we will look at spoken language. - e.g. THe sentence: The players talked to the fans. - Phonemes: Smallest unit of sound in language. Written in code. We can decompose the code. e.g. da pley ar z tak t tuw da f a n z [bits & pieces of sound]. - Phones clumped together are called Morphemes: It give the meaning to the language. e.g. The play er s talk ed to the fan s. - Sever Morphemes are brought together to produce word. e.g. - Words come together to produce phrases. Then phrases together talked to the fans The players talked to produce sentences. - [Insert the table]. Phonemes: - It is the smallest significant units of sound in a language. - To be producing speech we need energy. Column of air in our lungs that originates in lungs. Producing air pressure that sends air out of our mouth. Air- the column of air is coming out as sub-pressure & energy. It produces sound waves. Movement of lips, tongue & vocal cord (produces voicing). THese are the elements that produces speech. Column of air articulated by the movement of lips, tongue & vocal cord. 2 types of Plosive: - e.g. /p, h/ Bilabial Plosive: Bilabial -Involves both lips to produce the phonemes. Plosive part refers to that there is an explosion involved. We hold the pressure with the lips & there is mini explosion to produce the sound /p & b/. They differ in 1 small characteristic. Which is at what point your vocal cord produce voicing (vibrates to produce sounds). In case of /p/ our voicing starts at 6 milliseconds- with a blink of an eye. Computers are designed to produce the manipulation of when our vocal cord start to vibrate. When making it shorter & shorter 0.4 seconds we don’t here the correct sound. It depends on how far the onset is to here. Tongue is lower down for Bilabial Plosive & doing not that much. - e.g. /s, z/ Alveolar Fricatives: Refers to alveolar ridge (upper tongue where the ridge is). - Alveolar refers to: alveolar ridge- upper teeth where that tongue is. - Fricatives revers to: to that there is a friction while producing the sound. - To find the different: touch your throat & say ssssssh- fells nothing. Now make zzzzz- vocal cords are involved at we feel it. - Linguist have studied this in details. A phonetic expert will look at all this (lips, tongue, making a explosive sound, vocal cord etc). Interesting Facts about Phonemes: - There are exact 49 phonemes phonemes involved in production of English language. - COnfusing: “O” in Hot & Cold- confuses ESL folks. (This is why there are only 26 alphabets but some letters serves as different phonemes and makes up to 40). - Normal rate of speech is 180 words per minutes with 14 phonemes per second. Morphemes: - e.g. The play er s. Here 3 morphemes & 3elements of meaning in the word player. [Play- the act of playing, er- It is a person playing, the individual, s- there are several playing]. - Talk ed - has suffix. It has 2 morphemes. Lexicon or Vocabulary: - When we get closer to the words, we get closer to the vocabulary. They way linguist refers to words are LEXICON- which are the root words in our vocabulary. - Fact: English speaking HIgh school students have vocabulary of 60,000 wo
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