Psychology-Chapter 11: Lecture notes
Intelligence as we know is important in our society. We have an intuitive feel for intelligence. It
is a mental skill but the question becomes whether it is a general thing or if there are many kind
of intelligence. There are many intelligent people in the world. For example Bill Gates, Albert
Einstein, and Stephen Harper, but do they all have the same skill?
Mental tasks can be thought of as sports. In the sense that there are many and while some are
similar and require similar skills as others, there still exist a few that are totally different. If
someone is good a one they may also be good at another but not necessarily all of them, kind of
like having different types of intelligences.
Spearman in 1927 was the first psychologist to theorize about human intelligence. He separated
intelligence into the g factor, which represented general cognitive abilities and the s factor
which signified specific. Because when he tested subject he found that for various abilities there
was a correlation between the scores but this correlation was not perfect, if you were good at
one thing this was not necessarily the case for all others.
What is factor analysis?
Method used to further study the underlying structure of intelligence.
What does everything boil down to?
It involves testing people on a whole bunch of different tasks then trying to figure out how many
underlying factors exist
WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) common scale test used in education containing 11
subscales but after factor analysis can be boiled down to 3 factors: verbal ability,
memory(working/short term), spatial ability/ visual perception
More modern approach
Still uses factor analysis, but includes the one thing people always complain about not being
good at: math
The new factor in quantitative reasoning(math)
**But not all psychologists who studied intelligence agreed on what the components of intelligence are
Thurstone, 1938 found 7 factors: verbal comprehension, verbal fluency, number, spatial visualization,
memory, reasoning, and perceptual speed (speed of comprehension)
But, when further factor analysis was done on Thurstone’s 7 factors, Catell found that those 7 could be
cut down to 2 factors:
Fluid Intelligence: ability to see relations and patterns, rotate things mentally, hold things in memory for
long, solve problems quickly (LOST WITH AGE)
Crystal Intelligence: accumulated life knowledge, what experience gives you, growing vocabulary,
wisdom etc. (NOT LOST WITH AGE) Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Howard Gardener was the first one to propose a theory of multiple intelligences
This was not based on factor analysis, but instead on neuropsychology, brain damage and
It was based on the neuropsychological theory of intelligence.
People can lose intelligence in one area but have other areas completely unaffected, i.e. savants
have difficulty in many areas but are gifted in music for example.
Ex. Gabrielle Gibbons; congresswoman shot in the head through the brain in a bunch of critical
This theory of intelligence that educators find the most useful, very popular in the field of
Autistic Savant Syndrome
3 Men: George, Leslie, Kim.
George can tell you what day of the week it was and what the weather was like given the day
and year, for a 40000 year calendar. He can do this mainly thanks to the repeating patterns in
the Gregorian calendar
Leslie is a blind man with c