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Lecture

Psychology-chap 11.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili
Semester
Winter

Description
Psychology-Chapter 11: Lecture notes  Intelligence as we know is important in our society. We have an intuitive feel for intelligence. It is a mental skill but the question becomes whether it is a general thing or if there are many kind of intelligence. There are many intelligent people in the world. For example Bill Gates, Albert Einstein, and Stephen Harper, but do they all have the same skill?  Mental tasks can be thought of as sports. In the sense that there are many and while some are similar and require similar skills as others, there still exist a few that are totally different. If someone is good a one they may also be good at another but not necessarily all of them, kind of like having different types of intelligences.  Spearman in 1927 was the first psychologist to theorize about human intelligence. He separated intelligence into the g factor, which represented general cognitive abilities and the s factor which signified specific. Because when he tested subject he found that for various abilities there was a correlation between the scores but this correlation was not perfect, if you were good at one thing this was not necessarily the case for all others. What is factor analysis?  Method used to further study the underlying structure of intelligence.  What does everything boil down to?  It involves testing people on a whole bunch of different tasks then trying to figure out how many underlying factors exist  WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) common scale test used in education containing 11 subscales but after factor analysis can be boiled down to 3 factors: verbal ability, memory(working/short term), spatial ability/ visual perception Stanford-Binet Test  More modern approach  Still uses factor analysis, but includes the one thing people always complain about not being good at: math  The new factor in quantitative reasoning(math) **But not all psychologists who studied intelligence agreed on what the components of intelligence are Thurstone, 1938 found 7 factors: verbal comprehension, verbal fluency, number, spatial visualization, memory, reasoning, and perceptual speed (speed of comprehension) But, when further factor analysis was done on Thurstone’s 7 factors, Catell found that those 7 could be cut down to 2 factors: Fluid Intelligence: ability to see relations and patterns, rotate things mentally, hold things in memory for long, solve problems quickly (LOST WITH AGE) Crystal Intelligence: accumulated life knowledge, what experience gives you, growing vocabulary, wisdom etc. (NOT LOST WITH AGE) Theory of Multiple Intelligences  Howard Gardener was the first one to propose a theory of multiple intelligences  This was not based on factor analysis, but instead on neuropsychology, brain damage and autistic savants  It was based on the neuropsychological theory of intelligence.  People can lose intelligence in one area but have other areas completely unaffected, i.e. savants have difficulty in many areas but are gifted in music for example.  Ex. Gabrielle Gibbons; congresswoman shot in the head through the brain in a bunch of critical areas  This theory of intelligence that educators find the most useful, very popular in the field of education 1. Logical-mathematical 2. Linguistic 3. Spatial 4. Naturalist 5. Musical 6. Bodily-kinaesthetic 7. Intrapersonal-awareness 8. Interpersonal-awareness Autistic Savant Syndrome  3 Men: George, Leslie, Kim.  George can tell you what day of the week it was and what the weather was like given the day and year, for a 40000 year calendar. He can do this mainly thanks to the repeating patterns in the Gregorian calendar  Leslie is a blind man with c
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