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Chapter 14-Lecture notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough

Chapter 14- Personality Lecture 01  Personality: attributes of people;  Approaches to personality: o Trait approach o Psychobiological approach: looking at biological influences on personality o Social learning approach: effects of things we learned and personal experiences on personality (ie. Adventurous) o Psychodynamic approach: o Humanistic approach: the quest to feel worthy individuals and the effects on the personality  Traits Approach: o Personality consists of traits that are unique to each individual o Traits are stable and enduring disposition:  (ie.) if someone is outgoing, chances are they would be outgoing tmwr, next year, etc. o There are 20 000 trait terms and the traits are categorized in five clusters: (through factor analysis)  Neuroticism  Excess of negative emotions; very emotional  Traits: nervous, unstable, moody, tense, irritable  Extroversion/Extraversion  Outgoing, sociable, party-animal  Openness  Openness to Experience  Traits: Imaginative, creative, intelligent, curious, sensitive  Agreeableness  Niceness  Traits: Helpful, pleasant, empathic, friendly  Conscientiousness  Sense of responsibility  Traits: responsible, perfectionist, punctual, etc. o The Tendency for these clusters to mix in different proportions yields different personalities; a person should not be characterized as ONE of the clusters but rather as a different mix off all FIVE.  Psychobiological approach: o Role of biology in determining personality o One approach is to look at the heritability of personality traits (study twins) o Effect of brain damage on personality o Area under frontal lobe which connects the area of thinking was disconnected to the limbic system (which in charge of emotions) in the case of Phineas Gage which had a dramatic impact on his personality; went from an individual who was very reliable to and individual who was very childlike.  Optimum –level theory o Some behaviors increase arousal (ie. Extroversion and thrill seeking) o Optimum level theory:  There is an optimal level of arousal for motivated action  When arousal is low, we feel bored and unmotivated.  When arousal is very high, we feel tense and fearful o Thrill seeking- personality dimension that
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