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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Chapter 12: Lifespan Development - cross-sectional study: individuals of different ages are simultaneously compared with respect to some test/observation - longitudinal study: compares observations of the same individuals at different times of their lives Parental Development - prenatal period: nine months between conception and birth o has THREE stages Stages of Prenatal Development - zygote stage: the zygote (single new cell) that is formed at conception divides many times, and the internal organs begin to form o from birth two weeks o many layers one for the skin, hair, nervous system, and sensory organs o ending: third layer appears that develops into muscles - embryonic stage: zygote is transferred into an embryo and development occurs at an incredibly rapid pace o 2 weeks 8 weeks o 4 weeks heart starts to beat, brain/spinal cord starts to function o teratogens: substances, agents, events that can cause birth defects o sex is determined male gives a Y = develop gonads male gives an X develops ovaries - GONADS are developed first if its an X chemical signal is sent to change gonads to ovaries - androgens: primary class of sex hormone o ex/ most important: TESTEOSTERONE o develop the male sex organs - fetal stage: begins with appearance of bone cells and ends with birth o 2 months 7 months o 7 months = fetus can be born pre-maturely which can be negative to their health o on avg 3.5 kg and 50cm long Threats to Normal Parental Development - most important to fetus health? mothers diet - smoking mother? carbon monoxide of cigarette takes away from fetus oxygen supply - some teratogens are more difficult to avoid Physical and Perceptual Development in Infancy and Childhood Motor Development - maturation: any relatively stable change in thought, behaviour, or physical growth that is due to the aging process and not to experience - AT BIRTH infants most important movements are reflexes - development of motor skills? o 1) maturation of childs nervous systems o 2) practice - amount of growth is associated with IQ in later life - more complex movements? more complex developments of nervous systems Perceptual Development - voice recording of mother = increased fetus heart rate - voice recording of stranger = heart rate remained neutral - a childs senses are already functioning at birth o touch, auditory, visual - taste buds? YES! indicate preference by facial expression - preference/discrimination develop in utero via exposure to mothers voice - Form Perception o 1 month: baby doesnt look at the inside of a figure but look at the corners/edges o 2 months: baby scans across the border to investigate the interior of a figure o at these ages ^ the babies do not perceive complete shapes o 3 months: babies show clear signs of pattern recognition prefer to look at stimuli that resemble the human face o 4/5 months: they can discriminate between even very similar faces - Distance Perception o 6 months: placed in front of a high object able to perceive distance between ground and height of object so they DO NOT try to climb it o retinal disparity key for depth o crossed-eye? affects stereopsis. retina in both eyes perceive the same information o most at risk 3.5 months after birth - Critical and Sensitive Periods in Perceptual Development o critical period: a specific time during which certain experience must occur for normal development to occur ex/ many cognitive abilities, behavioural, or perceptual abilities are subject to critical periods st ex/ children dont have opportunity in 1 2 years to interact with others, cognitive abilities are impaired o sensitive period: period of time during which certain experiences have more of an effect on development than they would have if they occurred at another time ex/ learning a second language more easily learned in childhood, more difficult in later life if learned in later life, almost always will have an accent Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood The Importance of A Responsive Environment - cognitive development = process by which infants get to know things about themselves and their world - CASE STUDY o orphan for 3 years, adopted at 3, described as living hell due to inability to focus on any behaviour emotional maturity was VERY minimal o she was diagnosed with autism, attention deficit disorder, and hyperactivity - at KEY times the brain requires the stimulation that normal childhood provides for development The Work of Jean Piaget - children engaged in behaviour typical to their age - a child should complete a period prior to entering the next period - operation: a logical or mathematical rule that transforms an object or concept into something else - children develop SCHEMAs or mental framework that organizes information about a person/place/thing MENTAL SNAPSHOT - grasping shcema grasping her toy. learns to grasp other objects too turns in to pickin
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