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PSYCH 02 Chapters 14.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

PSYCH 02 Chapters 14-18 Chapter 14 Psychodynamic: a term used to describe the Freudian notion that the mind is in a state of conflict among instincts, reason and conscience Freud said that all human behaviour is motivated by instinctual drives, which, when activated, supply psychic energy Believed that instinctual drives are triggered by events in a persons life Unconscious: the inaccessible part of the mind Used metaphor of an iceberg to describe mind Operations of the id are completely unconscious Id contains the libido which is the primary source of instinctual motivation for all psychic forces Pleasure principle: the rule that the id obeys: obtain immediate gratification, whatever form it may take Id is source of uncivilized and ultimately harmful behaviour sometimes The ego is the thinking, planning, and protective self; it controls and integrates behaviour Ego is driven by the reality principle, the tendency to satisfy the ids demands realistically, which almost always involves compromising the demands of the id and superego The super-ego is subdivided into the conscience and the ego-ideal. The conscience is the internalization of the rules and restrictions of society The ego-ideal is the internalization of what society values and what the person will strive to achieve Conflict in mind can begin with the sexual instinctual drive or the aggressive one. To Freud, dreams were motivated by repressed wishes and urges Freud believed that the manifest content of a dream (its actual story line) is only a disguised version of its latent content (its hidden message) which is produced by the unconscious Free association: a method of Freudian analysis in which an individual is asked to relax, clear his or her mind of current thoughts, and then report all thoughts, images, perceptions, and feelings that come to mind. Ego contains defense mechanisms mental systems that become active whenever unconscious instinctual drives of the id come into conflict with internalized prohibitions of the superego Six most frequently used defense mechanisms table 14.3 page 455 for examples 1) repression: the minds active attempt to prevent memories of traumatic experiences from reaching conscious awareness 2) reaction formation: replacing an anxiety-provoking idea with its opposite 3) projection: denial of ones unacceptable feelings and desires and finding them in others 4) sublimation: channeling psychic energy from an unacceptable drive into a more acceptable one 5) rationalization: creating an acceptable reason for a behaviour that is actually performed for a less acceptable reason 6) conversion: the manifestation of a psychic conflict in terms of physical symptoms Psychosexual stages of development stages that involve seeking pleasure from specific parts of the body called erogenous zones fixation: the continued attachment of psychic energy to an erogenous zone due to incomplete passage through one of the psychosexual stages oral stage: the first of Freuds psychosexual stages, during which the mouth is the major erogenous zone due to reduction of the hunger drive anal stage: the second of Freuds psychosexual stages, during which the primary ergonous zone is the anus die to pleasure derived from vacating a full bowel phallic stage: the third psychosexual stage. During this stage, the primary erogenous zone is the gential area, and pleasure erives from both direct genital stimulation and general physical contact Freud believed that boys unconsciously fear being punished by their fathers over their desire for their mother, including the ultimate punishment: castration Oedipus complex: boys attachment to mother stuff Electra complex: girls attachment to father stuff (father has penis, but girl doesnt so that makes her closer to him cuz of the part she doesnt have :s) Conflict for both girls and boys is resolved through a process called identification. This is when kids turn to their same sex parents and imitate them and idolize them. This is the initial source of the superego development latency period: the period between the phallic and genital stage during which sexual urges are submerged Genital stage: the final of Freuds psychosexual stages (from puberty through adolescence). During this stage, the adolescent develops adult sexual desires Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Karen Horney, Eric Erikson, and Melanie Klein are influencial on elaborating the psychodynamic theory Carl Jung developed his own version of the psychodynamic theory that deemphasized the importance of sexuality Collective unconscious: according to Jung, the part of the unconscious that contains memories and ideas inherited from our ancestors over the course of evolution Archetypes: Universal thought forms and patterns that Jung believed resided in the collective unconscious Alfred Adler said the feeling of inferiority played a key role in personality development Striving for superiority: the motivation to achieve ones potential. Adler argued that striving for superiority is born from out need to compensate for our inferiority He said striving for superiority is also influenced by social interest Karen Horney said that individuals suffer from basic anxiety caused by insecurities in relationships She said individual has three options: moving towards others (self-efficacy solution), moving against others (self-expansive solution) and moving away from others. These are called basic orientations Eric Erikson emphasized social aspects of personality development rather than biological Has a theory of lifelong development Object-relations theory: the theory that personality is the reflection of relationships that the individual establishes with others as an infant (Melanie Klein) Humanistic approach: an approach to the study of personality in which emphasis is placed on the positive fulfilling aspects of life Self- actualization: the realization of one;s true intellectual and emotional potential According to Maslow, human motivation is based on a hierarchy of needs Figure 14.9 page 461 *IMPORTANT* Conditions of worth: conditions that others place on us for receiving their positive regard Unconditional positive regard: unconditional love and acceptance of an individual by another person Table 14.4 page 463 Objective personality tests: tests for measuring personality that can be scored objectively, such as a multiple-choice or true- false test Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI): an objective test originally designed to distinguish individuals with different psychological problems from normal individuals. It has since become popular as a means of attempting to identify personality characteristics of people in many everyday settings L scale (lie), F scale (frequency), K scale (defensiveness) Projective tests: unstructured personality measures in which a person is shown a series of ambiguous stimuli, such as pictures, inkblots, or incomplete drawings. The person is asked to describe what he or she sees in each stimulus or to create stories that reflect the theme of the drawing or picture Rorschach Inkblot Test: A projective test in which a person is shown a series of symmetrical inkblots and asked to describe what he or she thinks they represent Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) a projective test in which a person is shown a series of ambiguous pictures that involve people. The person is asked to make a story about what the people are doing or thinking. The persons responses are believed to reflect aspects of his or her personality. Chapter 15 Social cognition: the process involving perceiving, interpreting, and acting on social information Impression formation: the way in which we integrate information about anothers traits into a coherent sense of who the person is Schema: a mental framework or body of knowledge that organizes and synthesizes about a person, place or thing Central traits: personality attributes that organize and influence the interpretation of other traits Primacy effect: the tendency to form impressions of people based on the first information we receive about them Self-concept: self-identity. Ones knowledge, feelings, and ideas about oneself Self-schema: a mental framework that represents and synthesizes information about oneself; a cognitive structure that organizes the knowledge, feelings, and ideas that constitute the self-concept Independent construal emphasizes the uniqueness of the self, its autonomy for others, and self-reliance Interdependent construal emphasizes the interconnectedness of people and the role that others play in developing an individuals self-concept Attribution: the process by which people infer the cause of other peoples behaviours Primary classifications that we make concerning the causes of a persons behaviour is the relative importance of situational (external) or dispositional (internal) factors External factors are stimuli in the physical and social environment, such as living conditions, other people, societal norms, and laws Internal factors are a persons traits, needs, and intentions Kelly suggested that we attribute the behaviour of other people to external or internal causes on the basis of three types of information: consensus (behaviour that is shared by many people), distinctiveness (extent to which a person behaves differently toward different people or other stimuli), and consistency (if a
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