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For lectures 27-31 on chapter 17, video notes included, lecture 32 not included

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University of Toronto Scarborough
John Bassili

PSYA02 Chapter 17 The Nature and Causes of Psychological Disease Lecture 27 Slide 2: Classifying Mental Disorders There is a wide variety of psychological disorders. Classifying them is a prerequisite to organized diagnosis and treatment. The American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) is the most commonly used classification scheme. Slide 3: Simpler Classification: a less technical way of classifying mental disorders is in terms of: Neurosis: excessively irrational negative emotionality without loss of contact with reality; i.e. someone who responds with excessive anger, or anxiety in a situation, preventing them from functioning easily and happily - Anxiety, phobia, obsession, depression Psychosis: severe disturbance of thought and emotion with loss of contact with reality (schizophrenia); their mental space is not driven by what most people would consider to be reality - Hallucination, paranoia, delusion Slide 4: Anxiety: an emotion that is experienced in anticipation of danger. (like fear, but fear is experienced in the face of perceived danger). Anxiety is a more diffused emotional reaction; exists in various forms. (Some) forms of anxiety disorders: - Agoraphobia (with panic attacks), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), hypochondriasis, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) www.notesolution.comSlide 5: Agoraphobia: involves fear of being alone in public places, accompanied by panic attacks (a panic attack is a period of intense fear and discomfort where palpitations, heart pounding, sweating, shaking, nausea, hot flashes, (and many more), may develop abruptly Agoraphobics stay away from public places from fear of having panic attacks. In Greek: agoraphobia means fear of the marketplace VIDEO ON AGORAPHOBIA - Agoraphobia: avoiding situations that leave people feeling out of control and vulnerable to panic attacks (ex. driving) Ongoing fear for agoraphobics: Will I have a panic attack? If I do, will I be able to handle it? Those with agoraphobia feel safest at home, if they must go out, they will bring a companion along Diet (in particular, caffeine) contributes to symptoms. Caffeine producing transitory, anxiety-like sensations in already aroused individuals Slide 7: Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): excessive worry that leads to significant distress or impairment in occupational or social functioning but that is not focused on panic attacks; anxiety that exists for no reason that people around the individual would feel is appropriate; feeling anxious without really understanding why GAD used to be known as free-floating anxiety (being anxious without being aware of the source of anxiety) GAD often overlaps with other anxiety disorders (comorbidity is high) VIDEO ON GAD - Chronic, diffuse, excessive worry Sufferers often have difficulty falling asleep, many aches and pains, are excessive drinkers, have a greater risk of being dependant on tranquilizers and sleeping pills, women sufferers outnumber men 2:1 Many people with GAD feel they need to go to a hospital or a doctor, but they dont usually end up seeing a psychiatrist, maybe just the person in the ER at the time.
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