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PSYB01H3 (260)


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Connie Boudens

November, 29, 2012 Lecture- Ethics in Psychology Research Why do we need ethical guidelines?  Protects reputation of psychology  Helps ensure participants stay  Don’t want to harm people intentionally  Past ethical violations  Tuskegee  Milgram The Milgram Studies  Obedience to authority  Teacher watched learner being strapped into chair  Shock generator panel – 15 to 450 volts  Higher shocks for every mistake Potential Harm /Violation of privacy  Psychological harm includes:  Self-esteem  Embarrassment / humiliation  Anxiety / discomfort  Revealing negative things  Always consult with others  Always debrief  Offer counselling if necessary  Risk must always be minimized, and benefit weighed against risk Guidelines for research Based on Belmont Report (1979):  3 basic principles:  beneficence  respect for persons:  justice • APACode of Ethics • Guidelines for human subjects research in Canada • Institutional Review Boards (IRB’s) • Exempt research, minimal risk and greater than minimal risk • U of T Research Ethics Board(s) • Proposed research application form Informed Consent  Not always required  Includes:  Description of study  Risks / discomforts  Guarantee of anonymity  ID of researcher  Right to withdraw  Statement re: compensation  Offer to provide findings Coercion to participate  No excessive inducements  Offer alternatives to participating  Additional considerations  Special groups  Field research  Internet research:  Public vs. private online behaviour  Use of pseudonyms, usernames to gain entry / acquire information Were the Milgram studies ethical? Yes, because…  “Bad outcome” not forseeable  Milgram tried to evaluate harm and undo it  Extensive questioning of participants to make sure they were okay  Offered free psychotherapy.  Evidence indicates study was not harmful • Benefits were enormous • Excellent data obtained • Informative to participants No, because  No informed consent obtained  Participants did not feel free  Distress External Validity of Research  Do results generalize “across”:  Other settings  Populations  Times  Do results generalize “to”:  Particular setting  Particular population Components of External Validity Population  Will the results generalize to other persons or animals ? Setting  Will the findings apply to other settings ? Task/Stimuli  Will the results generalize to other tasks or stimuli ?  Usually the participant is “doing something” that directly or indirectly generates the behavior tha
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