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Anna Nagy (133)

lectures 2-4

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Anna Nagy

PSYB01 LECTURE 2 Psychotherapy is beginning to emerge as treatment for schizophrenia (in addition to antipsychotic drugs) The scientific method allows for the continual evolution of research(?).. IMPORTANT Goals of Science 1. Description of Behaviour (esp. in something we dont know much about) a. Careful observation e.g. in the SARS outbreak the behaviour of the emergency responders could be observed. 2. Prediction of Behaviour a. Systemic regularities in relation of two events e.g. in the case of violence, studying the relation between violence and the chances of reoffending, what triggerspredicts(?) violent behaviour 3. Determine the causes of behaviour a. Requires three types of evidence and caution 4. Understand or explain behaviour Causality Inferences of cause and effect require: a. Temporal precedence: causal variable should precede the effect i. How is this tested in an experiment Manipulate IV; observe effect on DV Convergence is needed to confirm causality. A controlled experiment is needed to confirm causality. b. Covariation: when cause present, effect occurs; when cause not present, effect doesnt occur www.notesolution.comPSYB01 i. Demonstrated in an experiment when c. Elimination of Plausible alternative explanation nothing other than causal variable could be responsible Explanation of Behaviour Description, prediction, causality, and explanation all closely related Explanation may be deemed inaccurate when new causes found o E.g. crib death in the 1950s. Sudden infant death syndrome was attributed to enlarged thyroid glands and subjecting them to radiation therapy to shrink the gland. The children in the study were from impoverished backgrounds and 50 years later started to develop severe forms of cancer. The enlarged thyroid gland was due to malnourishment. Ambiguity in science Leads to new questions Continual discarding and revision of explanations of behaviour as new evidence gathered. Basic vs. Applied Research Basic research: Attempts to answer fundamental questions about the nature of behaviour (theoretical issues) Issue of ecological validity Usually in a lab Applied research: Practical problems and potential solution Basic and applied research often overlap. Scientific theory: a falsifiable framework of research. Freuds theory on sexual behaviour and aggression is not a scientific theory because it isnt falsifiable.
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