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Anna Nagy

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Chapter 8- Experimental Design 1 In the experimental method: - all extraneous variable controlled - advantage: allows a relatively unambiguous interpretation of results - manipulates independent variable (IV) to seeif groups differ in levels on the dependent variable (DV) o all other variables are kept constant- through either direct experimental control or randomization CONFOUNDING AND INTERNAL VALIDITY - confounding variable: varies along with the IV - confounding occurs when the effect of the IV and an uncontrolled var are intertwined (dont know which one is responsible for observed effect) - a good experimental design- involves eliminating possible confounding that results in alternative explanations (need to eliminate them) - when results can are confidently attributed to the independ var (IV)= internal validity *Chapter Focus* on true experimental designs that provide the highest degree of internal validity *Chap 11- Quasi* lacks crucial element of random assignment; but still allows inference that an IV has an effect on the DV BASIC EXPERIMENTS - simplest possible experimental design has 2 vars: the IV and the DV - IV has 2 levels o Experimental group o Control group - Either vars are kept constant in both groups, or use randomization so any extraneous vars affect groups equally - The basic simple experimental design can take 1 or 2 forms: - 1. Posttest-Only Design o Researcher must (1) obtain 2 equivalent groups of participants (2) introduce the IV (3) measure the effect of the IV on the DV IV DV Participants (R= randomly assign) Experimental Group Measure Control Group Measure Steps to design: (1) chooseparticipants and assign to the two groups
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