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Anna Nagy (133)

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Anna Nagy

Chapter 9 Conducting Experiments 1 SELECTING RESEARCH PARTICIPANTS - Recall fr Ch.7 o Most research involves sampling research participants fr a pop of interest (composed of individuals of interest) Using probability or non-probability sampling techniques Imp when conducting scientific polls - Much research interested in testing hypotheses about behaviour o Focus here: relationships btw variables being studied and testing predictions derived fr theories of interest Easiest way to find people = non-probability haphazard or convenience sampling methods Nothing wrong with it as long as you realized they affect the ability to generalize your result to some larger population (issues discussed in ch.14; ample of evidence shows that with this type of sampling one can still generalize findings.) o Sample size- increasing it will increase likelihood that your results will be statistically signif Discussed in Ch.13 (choosing sample sizes) MANIPULATING THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE - to manipulate, need to construct an operational definition (seeCh. 4); convert conceptual var into set of operations (instructions, stimuli, events presented to participants) - in addition, the IV and DV must be introduced within context of total experimental setting- called setting the stage Setting the Stage - 2 things to do: o (1) provide participants with informed consent needed (2) explain why experiment is being conducted - Sometimes rationale = truthful; most of the time, you dont want to tell participants the actual hypothesis o i.e. say your conducting test on memory (but actually conducted on specific aspect of memory =DV) if you tell them truth, they may try to look good and try to confirm the hypothesis - Thus, if deception= necessary o Need to debrief ALL at conclusion of experiment - NO clear cut rule on HOW to manipulate---depends on cost, practicality and ethics of procedures Types of Manipulations (1) Straightforward Manipulations - Manipulate with relative simplicity with instructionsstimulation presentations---presenting written, verbal or visual material to participants - Examples (For exam purposes)
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