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PSYB01H3 (260)
Anna Nagy (133)
Lecture 1

PSYB01H3 Lecture 1: 2013 Prof. Ashley Waggoner Lecture 1

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Anna Nagy

Lecture 1: September-10-13 4:50 PM Overview Welcome to OF COMMON DATA STRUCTURES PSY201! 1 sample 2 samples 2 scores 1 score CorrelationalPre-post Non Equivalent Experimental 2 variable Over time (not groups See how they manipulating time) Sometimes it just happens DV/ IV relate =/= manipulation =/= random assignment •So be careful about causal claims Dr. Ashley Waggoner Denton Plan for Today: • Why is this class important? • What to expect in PSY201 • Introduction to statistics – Researchmethods,data structures, and statistical notation The2012 US PresidentialElection Producers vs. Consumers Differing perspectives PSY 201 Page 1 How peopledecidewhat they HOW DO YOU KNOW believe • Intuition: Implicit understanding of a phenomenon, usually developed in the absence of any formal training on the topic Logic Intuition • Logic: Formal rules of correct and incorrect reasoning (“If X is Y, and Y is Z, then X must be Z”) Authority Observation • Authority: Someone with expertise or status in a particular area (e.g., the Pope, Dr. Oz) • Observation: The practice of taking measurements of an object or phenomenon to figure out is nature  empiricism How to Lose Weight (it’s so simple!) • Exercise more • Eat only two meals a • Exercise less day • Don’t exercise • Skip breakfast • Do cardio • Never skip breakfast • Sleep more • Do interval training • Do Zumba • Wake up earlier • Eat your largest meal • Drink diet soda early • Never drink diet soda • It doesn’t matter when • Drink coffee you eat • Do nothing, it’s all • Eat throughout the day genetic… (taken from The Claim: “Exercise Less” • The evidence? “For the study, researchers at the University of Copenhagen recruited 61 sedentary and moderately overweight men, mostlyin their 20s of three groups: a control group that remainedne sedentary with no changes to diet or activity; another group that took up a 30-minutes-a-day routine of moderate exercise like jogging or biking (each participant worked out for either half an hour that exercised more vigorously, for an hour a dayp or until they burned 600 calories.” Exercise less or exercise less vigorously? The Claim: “Do Zumba” Anecdotal • The evidence? PSY 201 Page 2 Four Canons of Science 1. Determinism: The universe is orderly – There's a reason all events have meaningful, systematic causes – Theories:Statements about the causal relation between two or more variables – Variables:Acharacteristic or conditionthat changes or has differentvalues for different individuals Four Canons of Science Making observations/ collecting data 2. Empiricism: The best way of figuring out these orderly principles is by collecting data or making observations Observations  Data • Data: Measurements or observations • Data set: Collectionof measurements or observations • Datum:Asingle measurement or observation and is commonly called a scoreor raw score 150 cm No 4 (somewhat) 148 cm Red 168 cm 6’ 142 cm Yes 108 IQ 4 hours 3.5 GPA 161 cm 7 (very much) Four Canons of Science 3. Parsimony: Researchers should explain SIMPLICITY their observations in the simplest possible way. When facing two competing theories that do an equally good job of explaining a set of empirical observations, we should prefer the simpler of the two. – Also known as “Occam’s razor” Four Canons of Science 4. Testability: Scientific theories should be TEST testable (confirmable or disconfirmable) Confirmable or discomfirmable using currently available research Falsifiable techniques – Falsifiability PSY 201 Page 3 Four Canons of Science TEST 4. Testability: Scientific theories should be testable (confirmable or disconfirmable) Confirmable or discomfirmable using currently available research Falsifiable techniques – Falsifiability Determinism Systematic causes (theories + variables) Parsimony simplest Testability falsifiability Statisticsin the Contextof Empiricism Observations or collecting data Research You can reject it Or you can fail to reject it PSY201: What to Expect Make sure you have access to the • It’s all in here! course through the portal! (Blackboard) Office Hours: What to expect…. SS581 COMMUNICATION in PSY201 Mondays 4-6pm Wednesdays 4-6pm Tas For just about EVERYTHING: For sharing quick comments, links, greetings, etc. with me: Friday 2-4 @DrAshleyWD For private/personal issues: For more in-depth help: Either e-mail myself or a TA (whoeverseems most appropriat. All emails are listed in the course syllabus. ASSN #1 Oct 2 MIDTERM TEST - Aplia - Assignments - Practice problems - HALP PSY 201 Page 4 What to expect…. Getting Help in PSY201 Office Hours (starting next week): Where: SS581 When: Mondays 4-6pm & Wednesdays 4-6pm My office hours: Fridays 2-4pm (SS5016D) What to expect…. LECTURES in PSY201 • Lecture slides (to aid in note-taking) will be posted to Blackboard before every class • Lectures will expand on information provided in the reading, walk through additional examples, point out common misunderstandings or mistakes, and highlight the key things that you should be taking away that week • All material from both the textbook and lecture is potentially testable material What to expect…. Course Textbook • Statistics I: An Introduction to Statistics and Quantitative Research Methods • Contains chapters selected from: Access to: + & e-chapters of What to expect…. TESTS in PSY201 • There will be one midterm test and a final exam • Tests will be a mix of multiple choice and free response questions • The best way to prepare is to: – Complete the Aplia homework – Complete both Assignments – Complete the ‘Practice Problems’ featured at the end of each chapter – Get help right away if you don’t understand something! PSY 201 Page 5 What to expect…. TESTS in PSY201 • Half of the class will take the midterm in a different room  check Blackboard • Details about the final exam (where, when) will be available in October • Your midterm tests will not be returned to you, but you will be given the opportunity to review them (dates/times TBA) • You will be allowed a calculator & a “cheat sheet” (e.g., formulas) on the midterm and the final exam What to expect…. Assignments in PSY201 • Assignments will be posted on Blackboard and SUBMITTED VIA BLACKBOARD • Just follow the instructions at the top of the assignment! nd • Assignment 1 is due Oct. 2 “Menintimidatedbysuccessfulfemalepartners, studyclaims” • What might you ask yourself upon reading this headline? – Do you accept the definitions being used? – Do you agree with the underlying assumptions? – Do you accept the methods being used to arrive at the claim – Do you believe there is a population for whom the claim is assumedto be valid? Who are they? (Demographic details) Statistics is… • Statistics is the science of gaining insight from data • The term statistics refers to a set of mathematical procedures for organizing, summarizing, and interpreting information – “statistics help researchers bring order out of chaos” (p. 5) • Provides a framework for assessing claims in a systematic way PSY 201 Page 6 Statistics • Descriptive statistic
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