Class Notes (786,458)
Canada (482,196)
Psychology (7,551)
PSYB01H3 (260)

Lec 1-6 notes Research Methods.docx
Lec 1-6 notes Research Methods.docx

11 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
David Nussbaum

Research Methods notes The Scientific Method -Origins of the scientific method is traced of philosophy known as empirism, which holds that knowledge is gained through experience, observation, and experiment. - Empirical: denote information referred to as Data because it can be measured and evaluated statistically. - Empirical evidence differs from anecdotal evidence, which refers to impressions or opinions of just one person. - The scientific method is crucial to research because it minimized Bias by providing the rules by which observations are collected and results are evaluated. - Bias: familiar term that often indicates unfair practices that wrongly discriminate against others. Observation: Balance between focus and openness and serendipity effect. What is a scientific question? Questions that are researchable, some questions may deal with topics for which the scientific method is moot. These include questions of religion, faith. From theory to testable hypothesis A theory generates hypothesis, which are evaluated empirically with the scientific method. . A testable hypothesis is framed as a statement, often in the form of a prediction that is made prior to the actual collection of Data. Testable hypothesis is therefore described as a priori. Meaning that it exists before experimentation or observation. Variable and measurement Variable: simply defined as any characteristics that can take on different values ot can vary across research participants. Deductive Research: Research strategy that involves reasoning from a theory to specific data. Research circle: Theory->hypothesis->Date->Deductive research->Empirical generalizations->back to theory. The substance of psychological research: Independent variable: what is manipulated - Levels=conditions of the independent variable. - Control group=group that does not receive a treatment or manipulation - Random assignment=each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any group. Dependent Variable: Out come of interest Control Variable: Held constant or statistically removed from different groups. *Research I psychology is most usually evaluated using statistics. *Statistical probabilities take form of p-values. Problems with relying on statistical Significance: Statistical significance is dependent on: - The number of observations in the study - In experiments: The magnitude of difference in the dependent variable resulting form the manipulation - In Correlational (association) Studies (Where there is no manipulation, but measurement on more than 1 variable): The strength of association between the measured variables. - The priori (stipulated) significance (a) Level. - Summary: Statistical significance is primarily dependent both on the “n” and the “effect size” - Effect size: The magnitude of difference resulting from the manipulation or association between measured variables. Significance can occur with: - A large effect Size with a modest number of observations - With small effect size and a vary large number of observations. How to Read scientific Literature: Evaluation a study: - Consider the source: for scientific validity - Ensure goals are clearly defined - Consider warning signs of pseudoscience - Consider how research was funded Empirical papers Empirical paper will be organized into specific sections: - Abstract - Intro - Method - Result - Discussion Belmont Report (1979) - Established by the national commission for the protection of human subjects of biomedical and behavioral research. - Three Basic Principles: Respect, Beneficence, Justice APA’s five general Principles: - Beneficence and non-malfeasance - Fidelity and responsibility - Integrity - Justice - Respect for people’s rights and dignity Four Central Ethical Research Principles - Achieving valid results - Maintaining professional integrity - Protecting subjects - Encouraging appropriate applications of research Protecting Subjects - Avoid harming research participants - Participant must be competent - Participant must fully voluntary - Participant must be fully informed - Participant must be able to comprehend - Document is given to the participant. - Avoid deception, except in limited circumstances - Maintain privacy and confidentiality Basic QEEG Concepts  There are two basic concepts that are employed in the analysis of the QEEG data.  The first refers to the type of activity that is occurring at a location in terms of the 5 frequencies.  Each frequency can be analyzed according to concepts such as microvolt, relative power, peak frequency and peak amplitude.  In general, the important variables for cognitive success are the microvolt and relative power measures.  The delta and theta frequencies are generally negatively related to cognitive abilities and the beta variables are positively related. Case study:Keyes (1997) Constuct specified in theory to describe,explain, and predict a wide range of empirical findings. Not directly observable. Must be translated into an operational definition. Measurement constructsAsignment of numerals to variables according to some objective rule. Do our hypothetical constructs reflect objective reality? Use of multiple methods of measurement is essential. Levels of measurement: -Nominal: Categorical or qualitative No mathematical meaning Must be mutually exclusive and exhaustive -Ordinal Quantitative Rank order Does not assume equal distance between values -Interval All qualities of nominal ordinal scales Equal distances between values No true zero point -Ratio All qualities of nominal, ordinal, and interval scales True zero Numbers can be added, subtracted, multiplied, and divided.  Multiplication only works if there is an absolute zero on the scare  The Kelvin scale has a zero value that represents the total absence of heat in the measured system.  Zero in the Fahrenheit or Celsius scales represents non-zero heat values. Choosing Level of Measurement Important when considering statistical analyses - Non-parametric statistics=generally used with nominal and ordinal scales - Parametric statistics-generally used with interval and ratio scales Psychometrics: Studies the application of psychological tests as objective measures of the mind and mental processes. Cultures often influences psychometric tests. Psychometric Principles: - People have certain levels of psychological traits - Requires standardization: Standardization sample= random and purportedly representative selection of people drawn from defines population - Calculate norms Mean=Average Standard deviation=degree to which an individual score deviates from the mean - Stratified sample= formed by randomly selecting from relatively uniform subpopulations called strata which is denied along specified, objective features. - Many traits are distributed along the normal curve, which is the most scores to fall near the center, with gradually fewer scores as you move forward either extreme. Evaluating measures: Reliability  Measurement reliability - Test-retest= Scores should remain consistent over time - Interobserver= degree to which raters code the same observed behavior - Interitem=measures of the same construct should have a high correlation - Alternate-forms= scores on alternate-forms of the same test should correlate; used to avoid practice effects Assessing inter-item reliability  Split-half reliability  Cronbach’s alpha Adding Valid Items increases inter-item reliability. Evaluating Measures: Validity Face Validity  Looks like it measures what it intends to measure  Lacks a firm scientific basis Content Validity  Items have sufficient breadth to capture the full range of a construct Criterion Validity  test scores agree with an objective criterion  Concurrent=measured at the same time  Predictive= predicts an outcome in the future Construct validity  Extent to which theoretical framework and empirical framework of the construct are valid Assessing Construct Validity Using the idea of nomological network  Cronbach and Meehl
More Less

Related notes for PSYB01H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.