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PSYB01 Lecture 1.pdf

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Anna Nagy

1 Lecture 1: The ScientificApproach • psychology is the explicit study of how people think, feel, and behave • many themes and studies contained within the discipline • personality, learning and memory, social development, hormones and behaviour, abnormal behaviour, relationships and emotion, clinical issues • diverse field philosophical to scientific method • in psychology we use scientific method; make sense of data from stuff we collect and turn into an objective date; turn objective data back into our original concept; take philosophical questions and test them and see whether they are correct amongst the population Why Use the Scientific Method in Psychology: • methods we use in day to day world and in some other disciplines subject to numerous limitations • tend to reply on personal experience, intuition, and opinions of authority figures • tend to rely on shortcuts and beliefs, heuristics Seven Limitations of Personal Experience: 1) Confirmation Bias and Discounting Problem: • tend to seek out information that is consistent with our expectations and discount information that is inconsistent • the way a question is worded may also influence outcome i.e.) eye-witness testimony • questions have an influence, whatever you’re focused on more will have more of an impact • pay attention that confirms what we think we already know =>we know very little confirmation bias is dangerous because we have a pre-conceived notion, this is what • starts racism =>critical thinkers are neutral and do not fall onto bias • we set our studies to falsify things, sometimes we need to question what we are taught =>look for evidence to refute 2) Inferences may be based on very little data: • Behaviour is not absolute: based on probability and a multiplicity of factors • Extraverted or social people may be shy in certain circumstances • Limited information thus can lead to incorrect assessments • i.e.) Inferences based on little or no data: old way of raising dogs; work of animal behaviorists such as Stanley Coren enhancing field • very little data and make an assumption (do not know what has happened to them) eg. such limited info about Claire, but asking questions and making decisions 3) Influence of Expectations: • a flower is on a screen: what do you see? => Jose Sicilia, untitled • inferences based on very lit
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