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PSYB01H3 (260)
Anna Nagy (133)
Lecture 6

PSYB01 Lecture 6.pdf

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Anna Nagy

1 Lecture 6: Observing Behaviour • Non-Experimental Research: • Behaviour observed or measured • different methods used • Naturalistic Observation • Systematic Observation • Case Studies • Archival Research • QualitativeApproaches: • Describe behaviour or findings based on themes that emerge from the data • data are nonnumerical and expressed in languages and images • Quantitative approaches: • assign numerical values to responses and measures • data then subjected to quantitative statistical analyses • Naturalistic Observation: • naturalistic observation is sometimes called field work or field observations • researcher makes observations in a natural setting, over a period of time, using a variety of techniques to collect information • used to describe and understand how people or animals in a social or cultural setting live, work, and experience the setting: • usually qualitative data • researcher must interpret what occurred • generate hypotheses that help explain the data • final report of results organized around a structure developed by the researcher • Issues in Naturalistic Observation: • 1) Participation • Nonparticipant observer does not become an active part of the setting (outsider) • Participant observer assumes an active role (insider) • Problem: Objectivity • 2) Concealment • concealed observation may be preferable to minimize reactivity • non-concealed observation may be preferable from an ethical viewpoint • Defining the scope of the observation: • Limits of Naturalistic Observation: • cannot be used to study all issues • less useful when studying well-define hypotheses under precisely specific conditions • field research is difficult to do • a negative case analysis may be necessary • Systematic Observation: • careful observation of one or more specific behaviors in a particular setting • research interested in only a few very specific behaviors • observations are quantifiable 2 • researcher has often developed prior hypotheses
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