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Lecture 4

PSYB01 Psychological Research Lab - Lecture 4.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Anna Nagy

PSYB01 Psychological Research Lab Lecture 4 Research Methods – Studying Behaviour The Research Process -Look for potential theoretical framework, specific field you’re interested in and literatures related to it -Make a hypothesis based upon the gap, controversies, and/or population in the literature 1. Research Idea: Topic -> Library research -> Hypothesis -Topic to library research ->E.g., Stress and College students >Go to library or PsychINFO and search “Stress and college students” -*First step: Define stress – How will you define it? (Involves a lot of different lens) ->Meeting expectations and consequences ->Body negative responses towards stress (Getting sick easily, high blood pressure, etc) ->Behaviours in response to stress (Not doing what you usually do in your daily life, such as not doing daily workout due to stress) ->Mood change due to stress (Get angry easily, etc) ->Things that is out of your control ->Responsibilities for tasks your assigned for (Meeting deadlines, etc) 2. Define and measure variables: must be reliable and valid -Reliability (consistency) -> Measures has to be consistent (look for standardized measure on the literatures before constructing your one study) -Validity (accuracy) -> Measures is credible for what it is intended to measure (E.g., Revision of addiction treatment -> Rather than interviewing the health professionals on how to improve the addiction treatment, a good measure would be to interview with the addicts to understand the need and changes that needs to be made in order to improve and/or change the treatment as they are the ones who are directly receiving the treatments instead of the health professionals themselves) 3. Identify participants or subjects: which ones? How many? Ethics!!! -E.g., Male VS Female (What will be the difference in the behaviour?) 4. Determine which strategy will best answer question: experimental, quasi-experimental, correlational, or descriptive study (consider limitations of each) -Introduction of the research proposal has to be consistent with the methodology ->E.g., If you are measuring what are the effects of the newly developed antidepressants to the brain, you shouldn’t be interviewing the patients’ comments of the drug but rather to test the drug on the patients ethically and scan their brain to see the effects the drug had on them 5. Choose specific research design: between or within subjects? Single subjects? Factorial design? 6. Do the study (collect your data) 7. Analyze your data (descriptive and inferential statistics) 8. Write paper (APA format; remember ethical considerations) 9. Assess original idea: alter, refine, expand… -Adjust the question that previous literatures researched on or build a new one based upon them ->E.g., Elmo effectiveness on tooth brushing >Ways to increase tooth brushing -Theoretical framework – Relevant literatures on modelling (Influence on children’s characters), mentoring, social development and etc -Leads to the construction of research Elements of a Good Hypothesis -Logical ->Founded in theory or developed from past study results >Premise 1: Academic success is highly valued and respected in society (at least by parents and teachers). >Premise 2: Being valued and respected by others contributes to high self-esteem. Conclusion/hypothesis: Higher levels of academic success will be related to higher levels of self-esteem -Testable ->Should be able to observe and measure all important variables (cannot be imaginary, hypothetical, or belief based (e.g., God) -Refutable ->Must be able to falsify predictions that stem from hypothesis >Are the following hypotheses suitable? (None) -The more sins a person commits, the less likely she is going to heaven -Abortion is morally wrong -If people could fly, there would be substantially fewer cases of depression -The human mind emits thought waves that influence other people, but cannot be measured or recorded in any way -Positive ->Should state that something (usually a relationship between two variables) exists (premise of hypothesis testing is that we assume it doesn’t exist) >There is no relationship be
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