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B01 CH5a.pdf

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Anna Nagy

PSYB01 Chapter 5SelfReport Tests and MeasuresSelfreport measures are known as scales Systematic and detailed research on reliability and validity is often carried out on selfreport measures on personality and individual differences Psychologists often use selfreport measures to study psychological attributes such as intelligence selfesteem extraversion and depression o For example NEOPIR test NEO personality Inventory measuring OCEANOther measures are used in applied settings o Clinical counselling personnel psychologists use measures to help them make better clinical diagnoses careerchoice decisions and hiring decisions When doing research it these areas its better to use existing measures of psychological characteristics rather than develop your own o Existing measures should have reliability and validity data to help you decide which measure to useo Also youll be able to compare your findings with prior research that uses that measure o Many existing measures are owned and distributed by commercial test publishes are used be professional psychologists in applied settings like schools and clinical settings Reliability of MeasuresFirst step to quality operational definition is reliabilityo The degree to which a measure is constant o For example you can say someone is reliable as they come into work at 1000 am everyday consistently o Also it can be shown that reliable measure of psychological variable will yield the same result each time you administer the intelligence test to the same person o Thus something that is reliable doesnt fluctuate if it does there is error in the measurement deviceAny measure you can make can be thought of in two components o True Score An individuals actual score on a variable being measured as opposed to the score the individual obtained on the measure itselfo Measurement Error The degree to which a measurement deviates from the true score valueo For example saying a measurement of intelligence is unreliable it contains measurement error which cannot provide an accurate indication of someones true intelligenceo If there is a reliable measure of intelligence contains little measurement error it will yield an identical or nearly identical intelligence score each time the same person is being measured Tests that show less variability in measures taken are considered more reliable see page 95
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