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B01 CH6a.pdf

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Anna Nagy

Chapter 6 Observational methodsQuantitative and qualitative approaches o understanding behaviour involves the scientific method developing theories generating hypotheses designing experiments or nonexperiments to test those hypotheses operationally defining variables collecting stats o qualitative approach Also called interpretive an approach to research that emphasizes ppls lived experiences in their own words and the researchers interpretation of those experiences used in psych anthro socio and education o quantitative approach also called empirical approach an approach to research that emphasizes scientific empiricism in design data collection and statistical analyses most commonly used perspective in psychNaturalistic observation o naturalistic observation researcher makes observations in a particular natural setting sometimes called the fieldtypically over an extended period of time o has roots in anthropology and study of animal behaviour and is used to study many phenomenon in all types of social and organizational settings o Sylvia Scribners work on practical thinking good example of naturalistic observation research in psychology and studied ways that ppl in a variety of occupations make decisions and solve problems she studied the way that workers make mathematical calculations truck drivers and other workers make complex calculations that depend on their acquired knowledge o researcher uses this approach when they want to describe and understand how ppl in a social or cultural setting live work and experience the settingDescription and interpretation of data o naturalistic observation demands that researchers immerse themselves in the situation o if a qualitative approach is taken field researcher observes everything setting patterns of relationships ppls reactions to events and keeps detailed field notes the following techniques are used by these researchers observing ppl and events interviewing key informants to provide inside info talking to ppl abt their lives examining documents stndo 1 goal of researcher is to describe setting 2 goal is to interpret what was observed o a final report is then prepared and should support evidence for validityo naturalistic observations are usually used by researchers using a qualitative approach however quantitative data can still be collectedIssues in naturalistic observationParticipation and concealment o 2 issues facing the researcher whether to be a participant or nonparticipant in the social setting and whether to conceal hisher purposes from other ppl
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