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B01 CH8a.pdf

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Anna Nagy

Chapter 8 Experimental design experimental method is a vital and versatile tool in the researchers toolboxthe experimental method controls for extraneous variables eg you want to test hypothesis on crowding on cognitive performance one group put in a crowded room others in uncrowded room Crowded vs uncrowded are two conditions or levels of the IVif ppl in crowded room do not perform well is difference in test score attributed to difference in crowding yes if there is no difference bw the conditionsConfounding and internal validityall variables are kept constant either through direct experimental control or through random assignment controlling for the effects of extraneous variables by ensuring that participants in an experiment are assigned to condition in a manner determined entirely by chanceconfounding variable varies along with the IV confounding occurs when the effects of the IV and an uncontrollable variable are intertwined so that you cannot determine which of the variables is responsible for the observed effectgood experimental design allows researchers to make causal claims bc competing alternative explanations are eliminatedinternal validity the certainty w which results of the experiment can be attributed to the manipulation of the IV rather than to some other confounding variablePlanning a basic experimentthe simplest possible experimental design has 2 variables the Independent variable IV and dependent variable DV experiments in which there is one IV that has 2 levels experimental group and control group researchers should make sure the only difference bw the 2 groups is the manipulated variable researcher using experimental design must 1 obtain 2 equivalent groups of participants 2 introduce the IV and 3 measure the effect of the IV on the DVWhen there are only 2 levels of the IV the design looks like thisAssignment tocondition IVDVExperimental MeasuregroupParticipants Measure Control group Assignment to conditionselection difference the ppl selected to be in the conditions cannot differ in any systematic way
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