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B01 CH10.pdf

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Anna Nagy

Chapter 10Complex Experimental DesignIncreasing the Number of Levels of an Independent VariableIn the simplest experimental design there are only two levels of the independent variable However a researcher may want to design an experiment with three or more levels for several reasons 1 A design with only two levels cannot provide very much info about the exact relationship Eg look at example 101 on page 187 It illustrates how a relationship can go from a positive linear relationship to a monotonic positive relationship by adding levels 2 an experimental design with only two levels of the independent variable cannot detect curvilinear relationships recall form chapter 4in a curvilinear relationship the relationship between variables changes and sot he graph changes direction at least once If a curvilinear relationship is predicted at least three levels must be used For example the relationship between fear arousal and performancemay such relationship exist in psychology3 Researchers are often interested in comparing more than two groups For example when comparing the effect of playing with animals on elderly people they may want to test the difference between playing with a dog playing with a cat playing with a bird or playing with no animal at allIncreasing the Number of Independent Variables Factorial DesignsResearchers often more than one independent variable in a single experimenttypically 2 or 3 independent variables are operating simultaneously which is a closer approximation of realworld conditions in which independent variables do not exist by themselvesIn any given situation a number of variables are operating to affect behavioureg the experiment in which both the crowding and the windows were effecting the cognitive performance of participantsIt is possible to design an experiment with more than one independent variableFactorial Designs are designs with more than one independent variable or factorIn a factorial design all levels of each independent variable are combined with all levels of the other independent variablesIn the simplest factorial design known as a 2 x 2 two by two factorial designthere are two independent variables each with two levelsIn a study by Ellesworth a 2 x 2 design was used They studied the effects of asking misleading questions on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony The second independent variable was the questioners knowledge of the crime either they were knowledgeable or nave This 2 x 2 design resulted in 4 experimental conditions 1 knowledgeable questionermisleading questions 2 knowledgeable questionerhonest questions 3 nave questionermisleading questions
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