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B01 CH11.pdf

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Anna Nagy

Chapter 11Single Case QuasiExperimental and Developmental Research In chapter 8 we looked at classic experimental designed in which participants are assigned to experimental controls and a variable is manipulated This process has high internal validityThis chapter will look at 3 types of special research circumstancesThe first is an instance in which the effect of an independent variable must be inferred from an experiment with only one participantsa single case studyThe second we will describe preexperimental and quasiexperimental designs that may be considered if it is not possible to use true experimental designsThird we will look at research designs that study changes that occur over ageSingle Case Experimental DesignsSingle case experimental designs have traditionally been called singlesubject designs but are now called single case designs Barlow and Hersen Shadish Cook and Cample and single participant Morgan and MorganEarly interest in single case designs in psychology came from BF Skinners work with reinforcementToday research using single participant design is often seen in clinical counselling educational and other applied settingsDeveloped from the need to see if experimental manipulation had had an effect on a single participantIn a single case design the subjects behaviour is measured over time during a baseline control period The manipulation is then introduced during a treatment period and the participants behaviour is continued to be observedA change in behaviour from the baseline to the treatment periods is evidence for effective manipulationThe problem is there are many explanation for the change alternative examples because another event may have coincided with the treatment introduction therefore the following singlecase designed address this problemReversal DesignsThe basic issue in a single case experiment is how to determine that the manipulation of the independent variable had an effectOne way is to demonstrate the reversibility of the manipulationA simple reversal design takes the following formA baseline periodB treatment periodA baseline periodThis is also know as the ABA design and requires behaviour observation during the baseline control A during the treatment B and during a second baseline ASometimes called a withdrawal design
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