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B01 CH14.pdf

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Anna Nagy

Chapter 14 Generalizing ResultsInternal validity refers to the ability to infer that there is a causal relationshipExternal validity is the extent to which the findings may be generalized Generalizing to other populations of research aprticipantsRarely are participants randomly selected from the general population College studentsMany studies use college students as their population o This is a highly restricted population o This limits what we know about people in generalProblem of unrepresentative subject is not confined to human research o Many research designs use white rats as the subjects VolunteersResearchers usually must ask volunteers to participate in the researchWhen using populations outside college students you are even more dependent on volunteersDifferent people volunteer for different kinds of experiments o Volunteers usually join a research experiment based on interest in the subject being studied Gender considerationsResearchers can use either males or females or any ratio of the two o Can be convenient or procedures seem better suited to either makes or females o Given the differences between males and females results may not be generalizableSolution is to be aware of possible gender differences and use both male and females o Important to realize that males and females may respond differently to questions or manipulations of the variable LocaleParticipants in one locale may differ from ones in another localeResults obtained with a set of participants in one locale may not generalize to other locations Generalization as a statistical interactionProblem of generalization can be thought of as an interaction in a factorial designAn interaction occurs when a relationship between variables exists under one condition but not anotherResearchers can address generalization issues that stem from the use of different populations by including subject type as a variable in the study o Including variables such as gender age or ethnic group in the design of the study the results may be analyzed whether there are interaction effects
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