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Lecture

# CHAPTER 13 b01.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough

Psychology

PSYB01H3

prof

Winter

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CHAPTER 13 SAMPLES AND POPULATIONSInferential statistics are used to determine whether we can in fact make statements that the results reflect what would happen if we were to conduct the experiment again and again with multiple samplesINFERENTIAL STATISTICSEquivalence of groups is achieved by experimentally controlling all other variables or by randomizationThe assumption is that if the groups are equivalent any differences in the dependent variable must be due to the effect of the independent variable It is also true that the difference between any two groups will almost never be zeroRandom or chance error will be responsible for some difference in the means even if the independent variable had no effect on the dependent variableThe difference in the sample means reflects any true difference in the population means plus any random errorInferential statistics give the probability that the difference between means reflects random error rather than a real difference NULL AND RESEARCH HYPOTHESESThe null hypothesis is that the population means are equalthe observed difference is due to random errorResearch hypothesis is that the population means are in fact not equalIf we can determine that the null hypothesis is incorrect then we accept the research hypothesis as correctwhich means that the independent variable had an effect on the dependent variableStatistical significancea significant resu

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