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Lecture 4

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB01H3
Professor
Connie Boudens
Semester
Fall

Description
PSYB01 – Lecture 4 Prof’s Speech – Purple Slide 2 – Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research - Quantitative o Numeric (or can be converted into numeric) o Fewer features/variables, larger group - Qualitative o Data is text, video, audio, etc  Can summarize text-based data without having to turn it into quantitative data o Smaller number of participants or groups o In a case study, data is almost always qualitative Slide 3 – Observational Research - Involves systematically watching and recording behaviour - Systematically recording behaviour. - To be scientific, observation must o Serve a formulated research purpose; have a purpose o Be planned deliberately; be well-planned o Be systematically recorded – know what you are watching and have a system of recording that makes it as objective as possible o Be subject to checks and controls on validity and reliability. Slide 4 – Advantages and Disadvantages - Advantages o Naturally occurring – as opposed to behaviour in a lab setting (i.e. shape matching, pick words from a collection of letters) o Readily available (most of the time)  Don’t have to have participants come into a lab, or set up a special situation  Makes the process less expensive and easier to do o Can yield ideas for future research - Disadvantages o Potential for observer bias / confirmation bias  Observer bias – anything that causes them to pay more attention to one thing than another  Confirmation bias – when you expect to see something in a particular study, you see more of that thing Slide 5 – Observing Behaviour from the Outside: Naturalistic Observation - Observation of behavior in where it occurs naturally. - Should be unobtrusive - Good for studying behaviors that might be altered if participants knew they were being observed (reactivity effect). - High external validity - Time-consuming and inconvenient Slide 5 – Observing Behaviour from the Outside: Naturalistic Observation - Observation of behavior in where it occurs naturally o Person being observed is unaware that he’s being observed o Person is doing a behaviour he/she would be doing anyways - Should be unobtrusive - Good for studying behaviors that might be altered if participants knew they were being observed (reactivity effect) - High external validity – because it is a naturally occuring behaviour - Time-consuming and inconvenient o Depending on the behaviour, it can be time-consuming – i.e. if the behaviour is not common Slide 6 – Observing Behaviour from the Inside: Participant Observation - Researchers enter context, maintain field notes (away from other participants) – researcher becomes a participant o most of the time, we do not know that the researcher is the researcher - Rich narratives about the experiences of the observed and the observer - Advantages: o Introduces us to the world of others; shows us the way other people experience the world o High external validity o Researcher able to experience same conditions as the participant(s) o Can collect information on factors that may not be overtly observable Slide 7 – Observing Behaviour from the Inside: Participant Observation - Subjectivity is a major advantage, also a major disadvantage. - Unique because the researcher actually feels how the participant feels but the researcher may become close to the group and lose objectivity - When the researcher becomes involved in the situation/behaviour, they see things differently, and it becomes challenging to maintain objectivity - Must maintain/regain objectivity, not misrepresent or bias observations as a result their experiences. - Disadvantages: o Time consuming and potentially dangerous  Could be dangerous – sometimes the researcher feels that t
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