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Lecture 5

PSYB01 - Lecture 5.docx

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Connie Boudens

PSYB01 1 Lecture 5 Lecture Outline: Surveys and Questionnaires Survey vs. Questionnaire Survey o Usually done on a large scale o Attempt to get a representative sample of the population o Trying to figure out what a large group of people think about a particular thing or intends to do about a particular thing o Ex: if you wanted to get some information about what students at UTSC think about a new program/new registration/new building for this survey population = students at UTSC Questionnaire o Instrument used to conduct a survey o You do a survey with a questionnaire o Sometimes questionnaires are used to collect smaller sets of data Ex: sometimes youll use something that resemble a questionnaire or questionnaire like items as a part of research youre doing in a lab such as in an experiment/questionnaire based research in a lab study or a smaller scale study within the context of a research project Youre not trying to collect information representative of an entire population, youre just trying to get information for the group of participants in the study Steps in Questionnaire Development Define objectives o What is it that you want to find out? o Do you want to find out peoples attitudes towards a particular thing? Do you want to find out voting intentions? Do you want to find out their purchasing behaviour? List variables o Independent variables, dependent variables, background variables o Background variables something like demographics; anything youre not directly analyzing o Questionnaire based research often has a number of both independent and dependent variables a lot of data ends up being included in these studies o With experiments you dont usually have that many variables Operationalize variables as questions o This is the only way to measure variables in questionnaires o To measure variables must ask questions Develop wordings o In what ways can you ask questions that will you give meaningful answers Write proposed questions on index cards PSYB01 2 Lecture 5 o Not a requirement but helps order the questions in a good way as you can move the index cards and play around with them o The order of questions is really important it can affect the way people answer questions and if they give you really good information also effects if people leave the questions blank o Questionnaires that are not completed by participants have to be thrown away Pre-test o With questionnaires you are often giving a lot of them out when youre doing it in hardcopy it is expensive and time consuming to distribute them and collect them (a lot of commitment and energy) o Because there is so much commitment you need to make sure there is no mistakes, typos, nothing offensive, bad questions, etc. or anything thats going to wreck youre project o Once you send out a survey and you find mistakes afterwards re-doing it will be challenging because the same people who already filled out the survey with faults will not be willing to do it again + waste of time and money o Getting people to participate in research is really difficult a lot of no shows, time consuming, etc. o In a pre-test you fill it out yourself and make sure everything is nice and clear, that theres no difficult/impossible questions to answer o Also ask someone who knows a lot about questionnaire design to look it over and ask some lay people; people who are similar to the people who will eventually be taking your questionnaire Do they understand the questions on the questionnaire? Does the question make sense? Ask them to critique it, ask them to make notes on questions that are inapplicable, offensive, dont make sense, etc. Make sure the questions have the same meaning to everyone watch out for words/language that mean a specific thing to you but dont mean anything to other people so make sure people understand it in the same way Have people fill out the questionnaire to see if it actually gives you the information you want the way that they respond is it the information you want? How long did it take them to fill it out? so that you can indicate to people how long itll take them to fill it out and how much time they have to commitment People will often quit the survey if it takes longer than the time you indicated Shorten List o Reduce it to the questions you actually need and keep it as short as you can o In your pre-test participants can you tell which questions they think are redundant Refine questions o Based on pre-test critiquesPSYB01 3 Lecture 5 Putting the Questionnaire Together Decide what order the questions go in Generally start off with a introduction tells a person what the questionnaire is about and how long itll take, if its for a research project it should include information about the principal investigator and contact information to learn more about the project Questionnaires generally start off with really easy questions question that dont require a lot of thought, non-invasive, non-threatening BUT not demographics Ex: in a survey about the sports complex on campus and feelings towards it easy question Have you heard about this sports complex thats opening? if not provide some general information about it and then get more into the survey Demographic questions always come at the end such as sex, age, years of education, income, etc. Open-ended questions way 2/3 ways through the questionnaire Types of Questions dont need all types on one questionnaire Presence-absence o Just ask if a certain thing applies or doesnt apply to the respondent o Ex: have you ever dated anyone that you met at a club? o AKA Yes/no questions o AKA Di
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