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PSYB01H3 (260)
Lecture 4

2012.10.04 PSYB01H3 week 4 .docx

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Connie Boudens

OBSERVATIONAL RESEARCH, Case studies, archival analysis Qualitative vs Quantitative Research - Quantitative o Numeric (or can be converted into numeric) o Fewer features/variables, larger group - Qualitative o Data is text, video, audio, etc o Smaller number of p’s or groups Observation research - Systematically recording bahaviour - To be sciemtific, observation must o Serve a formulated research purpose o Be planned deliberately o Be systematically recorded o Be subject to checks and controls on validity reliability - Advantages and disadvantages o Advantages:  Naturally occurring: ppl would normally doing anyways, the contract here means here, differently in observation participation ppl may trying to act in a way demanded;  Most of the case, the behaviours are readily available. But not always the case; in here you don’t need to set up the cases; make it easier and less expensive to do the research  Can yield ideas for future research: anything coming up in the research that is unexpected, you may have more ideas for future research. o Disadvantage:  Potential for observer bias/confirmation bias  Confirmation bias: you have idea about something, and usually you will only pay attention to this idea related information. o In a political debate, they pay attention to the thing they have, and seeking the information and the things that has been exist, so you may lost the other information. o You may consistent with some ideas you already have but regardless of other stuff Observing behaviour from the outside: Naturalistic observation - Observation of behaviou in where it occurs naturally - Should be unobstrusive 无碍的 - Good for studying behaviours that might be altered if participants knew they were being observed (reactivity effect) - High external validity - Time-consuming and inconvenient Observing behaviour form the inside: participant observation: you could do with certain community; - Researchers enter the context, maintain field notes - Most of the case, the researchee do not know they are observed - Rich narratives about the experiences of the observed and the observers because the person is actually experiencing it - Advantages o Introduces us the world of the others—really tells you how the person go through it o High external validity o Researcher able t experience same conditions o Can collect information on factors that may not be overtly observable: like to do research for ranstorant, you could pretend to be a employee to experience everything in the back that never seen by customers o Subjectivity is a major advantage, also a major disadvantage o Must maintain/regain objectivity, not misrepresent or bias observations as a result their experiences - Disadvantages: o Time consuming and potentially dangerous o May be difficult to gain entrance to certain organization o Ethnical issues: for example need to maintain anonymity of your information Observing behaviours in a controlled setting: laboratory observation - Can create the conditions necessary to make the behaviour occur - External validity Vs Level of control o Higher external validity Case studies: - Intensive study of single case or set of single cases o It could be a group of people, - Unusual circumstances that rarely arise - Data almost always qualitative o Ex Chilean miner rescue,; fired big Bird Trace Evidence - Data left behind - Accretion measures o Things/message ppl leave behind o Ex: items in garbage, graffiti, open doors and windows; station settings on radios, law signs - Erosion measures o Evidence of usage o Ex: wear patterns on carpet or grass, fingerprints on display cases - Ex: items in garbage, graffiti, open doors and windows, station settings on radios, lawn signs - Advantages: o No reactivity o Readily available - Disadvantages: o Some evidence may have been erased o Can be hard to interpret Archival Research 档案 - Using previously compiled or other readily available informatio
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