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Lecture 5

2012.10.11 PSYB01H3 Week 5 Lecture_Outline_Questionnaires_and_Surveys.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Connie Boudens

Lecture Outline: Surveys and Questionnaires 2012-10-11 Week 5 Survey vs. Questionnaire - Survey: o Large-scale o Want info on population - Questionnaire: o Instrument used for survey; you never say I am doing a questionnaire, cuz it is always with the survey o Also used to collect information on smaller scale Steps in Questionnaire Development 1. Define objectives 2. List variables: What is the IV, DV, or background variables like demography; but the background variable is not always important as other two; in the experiment, usually they dont have that many variables 3. Operationalize variables as questions: this is the only way to measure the variables. You have to figure out what wording you could use; 4. Develop wordings 5. Write proposed questions on index cards: not only for questionnaire, but it is also a good way to write essays; trying to figure out what particular way you want to put them all in a order; 6. Pre-test: you need to make sure all the questions you put up are good questions; to make sure not wasting money and the energy of other ppl; make sure not to upset the participants cuz it is a very time consuming thing o Use yourself, experts, laypeople to help you to pre-test Do they understand the question/instructions? Dont just give to ppl and saying that hey could you just answer this. You may ask ppl that could you plz critique it or write on some comments; Do question mean same thing to all? To make sure that do ppl understand your question in the same way? Do questions elicit info you want? Could you find some variation in answers? How long does it take? Ppl want to know about their time commitment to response the questionnaires. 7. Shorten List: usually, designing questionnaire do not include many questions; no unnecessary questions; 8. Refine questions: based on the feedback from the pre-test Types of Questions: normally, you start with an instruction and how long it may take; normally, starts with easy question without thinking; but NO demographic question (income, age, sex and so on) in the beginning, and this is usually at the end; putting this in the beginning, ppl may think you will ask some private question and may be unwilling to answer other questions or affect their feeling of answering question. 1) Presence-absence o Check off which items that do or do not apply example: have you ever dated anyone you met at any of the following palces/evets? Circle yes or no At work Yes no At school Yes no At a community event Yes no At a bar or restaruarant Yes no Through a friend Yes no 2) Single-choice: o Indicate which one category applies o Options s/b mutually exclusive and exhaustive If not exhaustive, include others with a space after it Ex: what year are you in at university First Second Third Fourth Other ______________________________________ 3) Likert-type o Indicate how much they agree or disagree with a statement, like or dislike something, etc. o Example: in the following, circle a number to indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with each statement I believe capital punishment represents the most effective deterrent to murder Strongly disagree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 strongly agree I believe a murderer can be rehabilitated to become a responsible functioning member of society Strongly disagree 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 strongly agree o Different direction of the question; because you dont want ppl to just circle down the same thing without thinking; if you get different directions, ppl may take it more seriously about your question, and you will get better and more various results. o Tips for Likert-style question: Strongly agree always on the right side, with 5/7/9 for strong agreementput the positive one on the rightin case ppl dont really pay attention to the question: ppl thinking the positive thing is in the right side. Word some statements (+), others (-) Use the direct (-) statements Vary strength of wording for variation in response Ex: the nursing care I received was good, The nursing care I received was perfect in every instance. The previous two question, ppl wont answer in the same way; and it will be more things in your data 4) Graphic rating scales and non-verbal scales o Dont want labels to affect how the person responds, for low literacy skills, children. Ex: how would you rate the selection of food on campus? Not much selection at all -----------------------------------------excellent selection Asking ppl put a mark on the bar; How would rate the level of pain by using different smiling/crying face 5) Rank-ordering questions: o Ask for only 3-5 most important items(top 3 or top 5) o Make instructions explicit: place 1 is the most important, and Place 2 is the second important Try to make it clear!!!! o s/b minimizedtake time to answer, limit data analysis options o example: rank oder the three most important characteristics you want in your future career, place a 1 beside the most important one, a 2 beside the second most important one, and a 3 bdside the next most important oneHigh salary ___________________________ Security ___________________________ Intrinsic interest ___________________________ Power ___________________________ Excitement ___________________________ Prestige ___________________________ 6) Semantic differential scales: o Used for measuring the meaning of the concepts, objects, events o 1. Low quality -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 high quality o 2. Economical -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 luxurious o 3. Masculine -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Feminine o Or to draw dot on a graph for one question (usually a product ) 7) Open-ended: o Use when Too many response options For example, what year they are born? It is impossible for you to list out all the years; usually, you just put up a line for ppl to fill up Dont want to impose categories or wording Dont know what categories are Change of pace o Open-ended questions: Pros & cons Advantages o Permits detail, clarification: if you ppl agree or disagree with something, and explain why disagree or not o Unanticipated answers Some ppl you have a different reason for saying
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