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Lecture 2

2012.09.20 PSYB01H3 week 2 .docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB01H3
Professor
Connie Boudens
Semester
Fall

Description
2012-09-20 Psyb01h3 week 2 Getting started with research!! - Recalling the picture of circle last lecture Getting initial ideas  Look around you! o Direct observation: the things you see in your environment;  One important thing here: Question what you usually take for granted  Especially when it comes to human behaviour  For example: if you are in a store, you have insert the chip to pay; ppl doing different things: cover the pin enter, or changing body position or other; why do they do this? Or in different situation, they cover their pin or other. But in this case you may turn these into research questions. o Stories in newspapers, magazines, websites  : Tuxedo Stan for Mayor, because neglect isn’t working a cat o Blogs : ppl write their life story in their blogs. check the link from the PPT slide  Anything make you wonder could turn into your research topic  Common sayings: ex: 3 ppl living together always make a 3 person out….. you may come up some question like these: o Does this really happen? (is it true?) o Could I research this – what question might it translate into? Is it testable/provable?  You need find sth that you transfer into a research question with scientific ideas o Under what conditions might this hold or not hold?  Different situation matters in the same topics o Ex: Absence makes the heart grow fonder  You could transfer this into a research question: phycial separation make ppl more like other ppl?  What is the affective of time separation good for a couple or not?  This could be a whole research question: related researches: distanced couples  You may want to see difference in same sex couple, or ppl in different age and in different countries  The funnies!: o  When ppl go to fridge, do they actually want food or just thinking  A research question: how often ppl go to fridge? Are they really looking for food? Or how many patterns come up in mind but not just food?  Extend previous research: ppl build up on previous researches in psychology; to stand, or twist, or to expand on other countries or other group of ppl o What are the questions that were left unanswered by study X? check the link from the PPT slide  Research showed that the actually physical contact with care giver is very beneficial for new born baby.  Does the second care giver has the similar effect? Male or female care giver matters or not?  This is the question left unanswered so that you may expand on this question… o Are there additional variables I could add, or different conditions I could look at? Narrowing it down:  after you get your initial downthis is where students have problems in!!! for example, I am interested in certain topic like love, but it is very broad idea, and you need something more specific!  Be specific about what you want to research!  Bad o I want to study love o I want to find out if talent is inherited o Why do so many people think Obama is Muslim? (why this is bad???)  Better o I’m interested in the development of love relationships that start online o I’d like to know if the ability to match pitch is mostly genetic or mostly learned o I’m interested in why people are less likely to question information that is consistent with their beliefs  Don’t ramble on and on – narrow it to one OR 2 sentences –get some advice on this to help you to focus on one specific topic  Use sentence stems or fill-in-the-blanks o I’m interested in the relationship between ____ and ___. o I’d like to investigate the effect of ____ on ____. Ex: a type of music Vs level of exercise o I want to see if ____ has the same effect on ____ under these conditions:_____. Ex:pop music Vs observation Vs spin class …. o Is the influence of ____ on ____ the same for women as for men? Ex: massage VS relaxation Searching the literature  Why is this necessary? o History of research in the area: you have to know what other ppl had done this area o Establish case for project / build rationale: you don’t necessary to have a valid value on ur research but you need a reason of doing this o Make sure it hasn’t already been done o Can be a source of ideas in itself  Best ways to start o Library web page  Talk with the librarians; ppl in the reference library  We could make appointment with the librarians to help you with ur research topics  On line tutorials o PsychInfo o Google scholar (still need to look up article)  Keywords o Refer to texts o Use keywords in references to access more articles on same  What exactly is “the literature”? if you are not sure about whether is a scholar article check with TA/instructors/librarians o Scholarly books and papers that describe theory or report on research findings  Journal articles  Book chapters or entire books  Dissertations 专题论文  Papers presented at conferences  Not news paper or magazine articles  What are journal articles? o Scholarly papers published in academic journals  Submitted to journal by researcher / author  Accepted or rejected by journal editor  So the articles should be critiqued and reviewed  Parts of a journal article o Abstract  Short summary of contents of article o Introduction  Sets up problem  Discusses shortcomings in present understanding of problem, describes how study will try to overcome some of them  Introduces hypothesis(es) o Method  Describes in exact detail how study was conducted  Must allow for replication o Results  Details the outcome of study, reports statistical analyses of the data o Discussion  Restates the results, relates them to the original goals  Practical and theoretical implications  Limitations o References  List of sources  Reading empirical articles o If the abstract is too complex, the paper will be too. o Skim article to see how it is set up o Read discussion section first o Take brief notes o Skip sections you don’t understand and reread later Developing a Hypothesis  A good hypothesis is: o Testable o Specific o About a specific relationship (there must be a comparison or contrast bt two or more things) o About a particular population o Are these good hypotheses?  Soccer players are better athletes than football players  No. cuz the skills for these two are different so that it is not comparable;  So that you have to break down more details to be more specific  Our subconscious motivates most of our act
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