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2012.11.01 PSYB01H3 Week 8 Conducting_Experiments..docx

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Connie Boudens

Conducting Experiments 2012-11-01 Decisions to be made—steps to conduct an experiment - Who to use as participants and how many - Setting - Manipulation of the iv - Measuring the dv - Exact procedure - Controlling for expectancy effects - Manipulation checks? - Debriefing Example: Effects of eye contact on perceptions of honesty in eye witnesses - Does not matter if the witness make eye contact with the juries; Participants  How many? o A bigger sample is better up to a point  What is the point of cutting off? o 30 per condition considered minimum  No knowing where the number coming from  This is the least number you have to have in each group 1 2 IV 1 MINN30 MINN30 IV 2 MINN30 MINN30 IV 3 MINN30 MINN30  Who? o Convenience: most of the case; but the internet make things easier  If you are doing a thesis with someone have access to mass resources o Snowball sample: you ask your friends to ask their friends and going on  Similarly, you sending email to friends for them to forward o Internet-based: but you will have little control over who will participate, but usually you would get broad range of ppl  Probability or non-probability sample? o Probability: everything will be equal and more generaliable, but this is not always what you need; it depends on many situations like if there are any resources available; Setting o Computer lab space o Video capable sometimes will help to see the movements o Regular lab space o Sometimes, an office could be a lab; like a enclosed space, you could control the situation, and ppl’s mobility o AV equipped?—Audio Visualized equipment o Ex: a gaze direction equipment; used in advertising research to figure out where ppl are looking at; o Another example: measuring the oxygen ppl taking while exercising; o Usually it takes more money and more time to set up the participants o More natural environment o Ex: irregular hallway –experiment Manipulating the IV o Straightforward o Low realism: like showing ppl a picture, or a video and asking them the decisions or other reactions to the stimulus o Usually involve stimuli in the form of photos, video, text, etc.  In the example of the witness,, like asking the participant to look at the jury; the participant may not feel involved in the study  Ex: you try to figure out whether ppl take responsibility for differently for they have done  Usually, there is only one differences b/t the experimental and controlled group  Sometimes, it could present in the computer or in the form of questionnaire the person fills out  It requires very few from the researchers and participants to do something; usually in these cases are easier and convenient o Staged manipulation AKA high impact experiment o Intended to involve the participant in what is going on in the study o The participant is actually experiencing something  Like in the Mil’s Shock experiment: the participants know they are delivery the pain/shock to the learner; they set it very realistic; and the participants believe the things are really happening; very involving;  Another example of Line study in Conformity:  They have one participants and 7confederates to see ppl will agree the group even if the answer is very obvious o Often make Use of confederate(s):pretending; but the participants don’t know what is going on; the experiment of Line study;  The confederates have to act exactly same way and acting consistently  Sometimes, they are using actors in here; or using friends or researching system;  Usually, it is in cheat; and it takes time to run this; and make sure same confederates attending all the experiments Measuring the DV o Self-report measures o Advantages:  Convenient, easy to construct and administer: unusually something that the participants could respond in their own; or paper and pencil; researcher not necessarily to be there;  Allow for Greater precision: you will get lots of detail and the detail usually précised;  Example of self-filling questionnaire for shyness test;  Can reveal private behaviours, opinions, thoughts, emotions,  Can expose thoughts, attitudes that ppl may not act on o Disadvantages: like ppl may not tell you the truth  Rely on honesty, memory  Potential for Social desirability responding  How many alcohol did you consume every week; usually doctor write down the double number of what patient responds Behavioural Measures  What someone actually does; sometimes, may be videotapes; o Only observable behaviours o Can include facial expressions, proximity, large movements, micro-movements, reaction time  Micro-movement: sometimes things are easier to be observed on videotapes than the actual happening  Reaction time o Must be (1) concrete (2) codeable  Is it codeable?  How many ppl going through with business suits and with partners or alone?  It is hard to tell, like ppl is waiting for someone counted as alone or with somebody? What about the girl is in the cellphone? It is hard to count here…so that it is not codeable. o Advantages: o Visible, external indicators of inner states  Facial expression usually representing the inner states; but for some ppl it is hard to tell their inner states; most of the case, it is hard to cover o More spontaneous, less filtered than verbal measures  for verbal measures, ppl may take time to answer b/c ppl are thinking;  for movement, it is more direct o No requirement of verbal skills: children or animals o Facial Expression as a Behavioural Measure: muscles of the face expand and contract in different configurations depending on the emotion  Facial expression sometimes is the inner expression  To measure the movement of muscles  Particular patterns of muscles create certain expressions  Usually the patterns of contraction or expressions to observe the feeling of that person  It is useful sometimes to figure out whether ppl is lying; o Implicit and physiological measures for the questions that ppl are not comfortable/not telling the truth when answering the question o Implicit measures access automatic reactions and evaluations.  IAT  Google: implicit association test o  Most of the time, it is usually to measure your attitude because you cannot control how much time you will take to answer the question  Bogus pipeline: they set up a machine like it may tells the lie and the truth; at this condition, ppl ―knows‖ they are testing the truth and they are more likely to tell the truth. o Physiological measures  Autonomic arousal: measuring the body, like ppl are under threat  Skin conductance, GSR( measuring the skin, about how nervious the ppl is feeling ), Heart rate, respiration 
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