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Psychology (7,782)
PSYB10H3 (544)


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Elizabeth Page- Gould

Lecture 5  social group o interacting with people o have some sort of interdependence  non-social group o e.g. bunch of people in line not interacting with each other o don’t view each other as having any common goal o they don’t influence each other o if all of a sudden they witness a horrible event, probably everyone interacts and is transformed into a social group=due to a shared reality o don’t have to differentiate between which group is social or non-social (just know concept)  when we think of social groups we think of o social norms  set of behaviours that essentially is prescribed to all members o social roles  within groups  certain friends play the social organizer role  others are the go-along with everyone else  in family  tasks for each member of the family  Social Norms o Guy who came to class naked 1. Violation of social norms 2. Naked guy got expelled after lots of controversy  Consequence of violating social norm  Punishment or expelled o Guide our behaviour and social processing o You may be part of many groups but current groups that your behaviour matters in  Social Roles o Specific subtypes ascribes to certain members but not all member o Help group function o Costs 1. Seem to have power to overcome who we are as individuals 2. Sometimes the roles become such a powerful force that we end up behaving in ways that are not consistent in our beliefs 3. Violation of social norms in a group results in punishment so you still behave in these ways  Power of Social Roles- Stanford Prison Study o Phillip Zombardo wanted to assign people certain social roles 1. Participants were either guards or prisoners in mock prison  Although the roles would take over people  There still ended up being clusters  Feel bad and be nice  Working wit h system, not cruel  Brutally cruel 2. The social role overwhelmed everybody 3. So powerful 4. Individual still matters in extreme social role  It’s just hard to retain you but it is possible 5. The experiment was meant to display this idea of social role  But also brought into play the research ethics 6. The power of social roles is the reason why this unethical experiment is still talked about 7. Zombardo was researcher as well as warden  Now, dual roles of researcher is not allowed in US and Canada  If it is, needs to be very justified  Zombardo got sucked into the experiment  Allowed these people to be mentally tortured  Lost sight of the power aspect where he had to let the participants out 8. Norms and roles matter more or less depending on group cohesiveness  Group Cohesiveness o The degree to which a group IS or IS PERCEIVED TO BE close knit and similar 1. When you believe that your group members to be similar and alike – it promotes liking and being biased towards your group 2. Outside people stereotype to the members of the group  Social Facilitation and Social Loafing o Performance is improved when others are around o Facilitaton and Loafing affect our performance  Social Facilitation o Tendency for an improvement in well-learned actions in front of others 1. Performance to be inhibited when doing less practised tasks in presense of others  Social Loafing o Tendency to perform worse on easy tasks and better at harder tasks in a group (not indivudal)  Whether or not the performance is being individually evaluated or group evaluated, affects whether its social facilitation or loafing o E.g., choir singing vs individual singing  Evaluation apprehension o Indivudal maybe more or less concerned about how you’ll be judged. 1. The more concern, the more apprehension, the more aroused in the moment of the performance. o Extreme end we have Socio-Evaluative Threat 1. Extreme Evaluation Apprehension  Body responds with visceral response  Hormones like cortisol  Cortisol constricts blood vessels in hippocampus  Inhibits memory and learning  In this extreme form, the stress response inhibits ability to perform well  arousal (physiological sense) this is a summary of the facilitation and loafing o If you’re a little bit stressed, you perform better than totally relaxed, but extremely aroused or stressed, your performance gets worse  Group Decision Making o Group Polarization 1. Groups make more extreme decisions 2. Riskier or more cautious 3. Contains informational and normative infkuences  Tend to overestimate a degree to which the group agrees and extreme otcome shoud arise 4. Extreme form  Group think  Strive for group harmony to the point where they make bad decisions to maintain the cohesiveness  Challenge Disaster  Shuttle explodes because of group think  Nasa has a policy to cancel mission if any
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