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Lecture 5

Lecture 5.docx

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

PSYB10 – Lecture 5 Prof’s Speech - Purple Slide 11 – Group Processes - One of the oldest areas of social psychology - How do groups of people around us affect us? - Groups o Social Groups – group where you are interacting with other people and have some form of interdependence with them (i.e. a common goal, need each other, interact with each other) o Non-social groups can turn into social groups under certain circumstances – if those circumstances require them to interact  i.e. group of people standing in a line (non-social) witness some sort of horrible event (and then have to interact) – becomes a social group  Film - Quiet Rage: The Stanford Prison Experiment (Zimbardo) o How groups affect us  Social Facilitation and Social Loafing  Group Decision Making  Deindividuation  Destructive Groups (“cults”) o Conformity: Film - Obedience (Milgram) Slide 12 – Types of Groups - Differentiating elements of Non-social vs. Social Groups: o Interaction o Interdependence Slide 13 – Social Groups - Groups have social norms to guide our group and behavior – set of behaviours that is essentially prescribed to all group members - Groups have well-defined social roles - Vary in level of group cohesiveness – based on the level of cohesiveness, affects of the social group and group processes are stronger or weaker Slide 14 – Social Norms - Guide a lot of our behaviour and a lot of our processing - We may belong to multiple groups that have their own set of norms o The norms may or may not conflict, but the current group’s norms matter for behaviour - A group’s prescriptions for the behaviour, values, and beliefs of its members o Group members are expected to conform to these norms o Members who deviate from norms are punished or rejected  UC Berkeley’s “Naked Guy”  Andrew Martinez, undergrad walked around naked, strong violation of social norms, interventions to change behaviour did not work so he was expelled from the university  Because group members are expected to conform to the prescribed behaviours of the group – when there is deviation, they are punished and ultimately expelled from the group Slide 15 – Social Roles - A group’s expectations for the behaviour and responsibilities of various subgroups of its members o Supposed to help a group function o Norms tend to be applied to all group members, roles are essentially a specific subtype of norms that ascribe to certain, not all, group members o Potential costs: - Individual personality may be taken over by power of role; roles seem to have the power to overcome who we are as individuals; roles can be such a powerful force that we end up behaving in ways that may not be internally consistent with out beliefs - Violation of social roles meets with censure from other group members Slide 16 – Power of Social Roles - VIDEO - Zimbardo was interested in if he would assign people certain social roles (in this case, focused on prison) o He randomly assigned participants to be a guard or a prisoner in a mock prison for 2 weeks (but had to stop after 6 days)  The experiment demonstrates social roles because it starts with random assignment of guards/prisoners o Stanford Prison Experiment  Goal: study behavioural and psychological consequences of becoming a prisoner or a guard  Simulate prison environment – physically and mentally – and observed  The experiment was unethical, but it did not end sooner because Zimbardo, the principle experimenter, got caught up in his role as the jail superintendent  Because of the roles in which the participants found themselves, they began to act very differently from each other, but also in ways that seemed to take over who they were as individuals  Although the roles would take over people, there ended up being clusters of guards  Social role was so powerful that it overwhelmed everyone involved in the experiment, but the individual still matters – there is still room for you to choose how you are going to play out the role and act within it  Because of this experiment, multiple roles of the researcher in context of the research is usually not allowed  Multiple roles can lead to the researcher getting sucked into the experiment and lose the idea that they have power to stop the experiment when it becomes unethical Slide 17 – Group Cohesiveness - The degree to which a group IS or IS PERCEIVED TO BE close knit and similar to one another o In the minds of group members:  Cohesiveness promotes liking and ingroup favouritism  The more you perceive group members as being close, tight, and interacting a lot, the more you like them and the more you show ingroup favouritism  Ingroup favouritism – when you try to keep more resources for your own group o In the minds of outsiders:  Cohesiveness increases stereotyping  The more you view a group as being cohesive, the more you stereotype those group members  If you perceive a group to be not as cohesive, would not stereotype them as much Slide 19 – Social Facilitation and Social Loafing - Effects of groups on individual performance; the way that the presence of others affects our performance - Created by an interaction of three factors: o Individual Evaluation for your performance o Arousal – i.e. heart rate acceleration o Task complexity Slide 21 – Social Loafing - Tendency for people to perform worse on simple tasks and better on complex tasks if they are in a group and not being individually evaluated - Opposite of social facilitation - Differentiation between processes – whether or not performance is being evaluated o When individual evaluation is taken out of the equation, people perform much better if the task is difficult or complex and tend to perform worse if the task is simple o Apprehension about being evaluated Slide 23 – Evaluation - Evaluation Apprehension o Concern about being judged/evaluated  The more concerned you are about being evaluated on the task, the more evaluation apprehension you are assumed to have, therefore the more arousing and intense the experience of the performance should be - Socio-evaluative Threat o Extreme Evaluation Apprehension; more intense form of evaluation apprehension  Body responds with the stress hormone, cortisol – can get so concerned about being evaluated that your body responds to the situation  Cortisol constricts blood vessels in hippocampus, inhibiting memory and learning  With the extreme form of evaluation apprehension, the body kicks in and follows up with stress response, which inhibits our ability to perform well and then we do not perform as well Slide 25 – Putting it All Together - Chart - The starting point of social facilitation/loafing is always comparing when you are doing something by yourself vs. in the presence of others - Evaluation – how will you be evaluated? Individual evaluation leads to evaluation apprehension, but when you can’t be individually evaluated, there is no evaluation apprehension - Arousal – physiologically, when there is no evaluation apprehension there is relaxation, or at least not an activation of stress systems Slide 27 – Group Polarization - Effect that refers to a Tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclinations of their members o Almost always, a group will decide on a decision that is greater than what each individual would have said o Can be a shift to either greater risk or greater caution/being more conservative o The group contains both informational and normative explanations/influence o Minor effect, more subtle, occurs on an everyday basis Slide 28 – Group Think - “A mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members' strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action” o When members’ striving for
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