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PSYB10H3 (544)
Lecture 2

PSYB10 Lecture 2 Summary

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

THE SELF & SELF-REGULATION (CHAPTER 5) The self  An individual consciousness of one’s own identity (feelings, observations and thoughts) Self-awareness  The act of thinking about ourselves - The awareness of the self as an entity that is distinct from others and the environment - E.g. Mark test o Whether animals possess the ability to recognize themselves in the mirror o Occurs approximately at 1 ½ years old - Self awareness theory  When p focus our attention on ourselves, we evaluate and compare our behaviour to our internal standards and values o The consequences of self-focused attention Levels of the self - Minimal self o Conscious experience of the self as distinct from the environment - Objectified self o Cognitive ability to hold yourself in your own attention o You are the focus of your own attention - Symbolic self (also called “Narrative self”) o Ability to form an abstract mental representation of the self through language Self-concept  Your concept of who you are - Everything you know about yourself (qualities, identities, roles, etc.) - E.g. twenty statements test (TST) o “I am” blanks o Group into “personality descriptors” and “social roles” Self-schema  The cognitive representation of how the self-concept is organized - The concepts/words in your semantic network that are associated with your sense of self - Guides processing of self related information - Self-reference effect  The tendency for people to remember information better if they relate it to themselves o Integrating information with our self-schemas helps us organize the information better and connect it to other information about ourselves Self-complexity  The depth and complexity of your self-concept - The number of distinct aspects used to define the self concept - Determined from the TST Global self-concept versus contextualized self-concept - Contextualized self-concept buffers against negative feelings after failure Working self-concept  A subset of your self-concept that is presently accessible - What goes into the working self-concept? o Recently primed aspects of self o Contextually distinct aspects  Different aspects of self is activated in different contexts o Central aspects of self Self-concept centrality  Some aspects of the self-concept are more personally important to you than others - Central aspects are chronically accessible in the semantic network and in the working self-concept - E.g. Bull’s eye task o Describe yourself with “me” written in the middle o Terms that are closer to the center are more central to the self-concept - Self-evaluative maintenance o If someone close to you outperforms you in a domain, then:  You will be threatened if the domain is central to your self-concept  To maintain good positive self-evaluation or you will have negative self-evaluation o Distance self from relationship o Distance self from task domain  You will be proud if the domain is not central to your self-concept  Magnitude of self-esteem boost is proportional to closeness of relationship - Self-handicapping o Strategy to buffer the self from an anticipated failure or embarrassment by undermining one’s own performance  Engaging in certain processes that set you up to fail if you anticipate that you are going to fail and you don’t have the time to correct it o E.g. how listening to music affects performance on tests  Diagnostic condition  Test is predictive of future success  Chose music tapes that was going to hurt their performance  Invalid condition  Test is not predictive of future success o The more central the test was to people’s idea of their future self, then the more they chose things to hurt their performance  If they don’t do as well, then it won’t hurt as bad - Self-verification o The need to seek confirmation from others of one’s self-concept  Motivated by desire to be understood  Holds true even if the self-concept is negative  Holds true only for traits that are central to the self-concept o E.g. personality trait evaluation (depression)  Negative self-evaluations are central to depressed people  You want other people to see you that way too  You want to affiliate with the person that understands you Multiple selves - Independent selves  View of self as distinct from others o This is something that makes you unique - Interdependent selves  View of self as inherently linked with others o Includes other people in one’s view of self - Possible selves  Types of self-knowledge that pertains to how we think about our potential and our future o Ideal selves we want to become o Neutral selves we could become o Selves we are afraid of becoming - Self-discrepancy theory  We become distressed when our sense of actual self is discrepant from ought self or ideal self o Actual self is who you are now o Ideal self is who you would ideally like to be (causes depression) o Ought self is who you or other people think you should be (causes anxiety) Self-esteem  The self-evaluative component of the self-concept - Self-esteem scale o Half of the statements are reverse scored to get around the affirmation bias where most people have a tendency to say yes o Subtract 7 from the reversed statements o Normal distribution - Global self-esteem  The typical level of self-esteem o Measured by the self-esteem scale - State self-esteem  Self-esteem that fluctuates based on situation/context - Sociometer self-esteem  The need to belong is evolutionary adaptive and self-esteem monitors the likelihood of social exclusion o Sociometer  An internal monitor of social acceptance or rejection  High sociometer  high self-esteem  probability of social rejection is low  Low sociometer  low self-esteem  probability of social rejection is high o Self-esteem is a
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