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Lecture 8

PSYB10 Lecture 8 Summary

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

CULTURE - Culture o An ever-changing, constructive stimulus shaping the way individuals perceive and contribute to the world  Dynamic  Influenced by members of the culture  Influences members of the culture o Nationality  The country you were born in or you currently live o Ethnicity  Your cultural heritage o Identification  The degree to which you include group membership in your self-concept or sense of who you are o Meaning system  Symbols, language, experiences  Metaphysical beliefs about the world, universe, purpose and existence - Describing culture o Individualist cultures  Emphasis on personal achievement, even at the presence of others  Emphasis on competition  E.g., Canada, Western Europe o Collectivist cultures  Emphasis on social roles and collective responsibilities, even at the expense of the individual  Emphasis on co-operation  E.g., China, Korea, Latin America o Political climate  Political structure greatly shapes behaviour and cultural experience  Sometimes government change can extinguish a culture o Religious beliefs  Dominant religious beliefs characterize a culture’s moral reasoning and motivations  Sometimes rejecting one’s religion is viewed as rejecting one’s culture  Religion also affects social roles and social norms o Ecological differences  Environmental context shapes the development and focus of a culture  The number of words to describe different things is highly relevant to the environment - Language issues o Is the meaning of our words “lost in translation” when we translate from one language to another? o Translation efficacy (Lost in translation?)  Maybe-so evidence  Showed participants an array of objects  Use words to describe the objects  The number of words used to describe the objects varies by culture  We call objects by different names  Maybe-not evidence  Showed participants an array of objects  Group objects according to similarity  Speakers of all three languages arranged the objects into the same groups o The languages do not map completely and identically to one another  We group them similarly o Back translation  Translating a word, phrase, or sentence multiple times between two languages until both translations yield the same phrase  Requires at least two bilingual people  Time consuming  Process  Translate from language 1 to language 2  Translate from language 2 to language 1  Repeat until all discrepancies have been fixed - How does culture affect us? o Cognitive component  Cognitive framing  The perceptual framework through which you view the world o Culture affects the way we see the world o Culture affects the way we interpret events  Cultural primes o Priming someone with a familiar icon of their culture will temporarily increase their identification with that culture  The culture is more accessible in the self-concept o Primed Chinese participants with Chinese icons versus Western icons o Observed greater endorsement of Chinese values after Chinese cultural primes  Culture affects how much we endorse other aspects of our culture  Dialectical thinking style  A cognitive reasoning structure through which an individual interprets the environment o A way to think o A metaphysical belief system about the way the world works  Three principles o Change  Everything is in flux and constantly changing o Contradiction  Opposing propositions may be true o Wholism  Everything is interrelated and interdependent  Explains contradiction  Proverb comparison experiment o Chinese have four times as many dialectical proverbs as Americans o Americans preferred linear American proverbs > dialectical American proverbs o Chinese preferred dialectical Chinese proverbs > linear Chinese proverbs o Chinese preferred dialectical Yiddish proverbs > linear Yiddish proverbs  Dialectical thinking uses analogies  Linear thinking uses algorithms o Affect component  Emotional complexity  The experience of many emotions at the same time, especially if those emotions are a mixture of positive and negative feelings o Culture predicts the degree of emotional complexity  Correlations between positive and negative emotions o In US  Negative correlation  E.g., If you feel happy, then you are less likely to feel sad o In East Asia  No correlation  E.g., If you feel happy, then you might feel sad or you might not  E.g., Your level of sadness is unrelated to your level of happiness o In US, people tend to report felling only one emotion o In East Asia, people report much more emotions at the same time  Correlation between positive and negative emotional intensity o In China and Korea  Positive correlation  E.g., If you feel happy and sad together, then if you are moderately happy then you are going to be moderately sad o Behavioural component  Social norms  Social norms are completely relative to cultural context  Punishment for violation of social norms varies by culture  Social roles  Importance of social roles varies by culture  East Asians list significantly more social roles in TST o Suggests that social roles and norms are more important and valued in those cultures - Moving between cultures o Acculturation  Successful integration of the heritage of two cultures regardless of the situation (like in BII)  Adoption of new culture through incorporating value systems of both new and original cultures  Tends to be the best approach for the individual o Assimilation  Complete adoption of a new culture  Adoption of a new culture and simultaneous rejection of original culture  The members of the host culture tend to like it when people assimilate  Tend to be viewed more positively by members of the culture you are moving to  Tend to have more negative outcomes for the individual o Bicultural identity integration (BII)  Degree to which two cultural identities are integrated into a super-ordinate bicultural identity  How well you manage the two cultures  How you identify yourself to either cultures o High in BII = lots of harmony + very similar = the tendency towards to acculturation o Low in BII = lots of conflict + very distant = the tendency towards assimilation or separation  You adopt the new culture completely or you reject the new culture and stay with original  Two components  Perceived harmony vs. perceived conflict  Perceived similarity vs. perceived distance  BII and frame switching  BII may influence the process of cultural frame switching o High BII individuals  Unconflicted about their two cultural orientations  Engage in cultural frame switching  React to cultural cues in culturally consistent ways o Low BII individuals  Perceive their ethnic and mainstream identities as opposites  React to cultural cues in the opposite way  Reverse priming effect  Cultural priming will lead to an activation of the other culture  Engage in behaviour that is more consistent with the other culture  React to Western primes by providing characteristically East Asian behaviour  React to East Asian primes by providing characteristically Western behaviour  Correlates with depression and anxiety  Participants primed with Chinese or Western cultural primes o Why is the fish in the front?  External attributions are a characteristic of Chinese cultures (collectivist)  Internal attributions are a characteristic of American cultures (individualist) o High BII  Behave in a prime-consistent manner  Make stronger internal attributions when primed with American identity  Make stronger external attributions when primed with Chinese identity  Cultural priming will lead to an activation of the corresponding culture  Behave more in accordance with the culture  Have fully integrated their two cultural identities  Respond congruently with cultural primes o Low BII  Behave in a more prime-resistant manner  Make stronger internal attributions when primed with Chinese identity  Make stronger external attributions when primed with American identity  Cultural priming will lead to an activation of the opposite culture  Behave more in accordance with the opposite culture  Have trouble integrating their two cultural identities  Have a disconnect between their cultural identities  When one cultural identity is made salient, rather than acting in accordance with that identity, they act more in line with their other identity SOCIAL POWER & HIERARCHY - Definitions o Social hierarchy  An implicit or explicit rank order of individuals or groups with respect to a valued social dimension  Formal hierarchy  An explicit set of roles that vary by rank order, with higher-ranking roles holding greater value  People move between roles, but the hierarchy stays the same  Signs of a formal hierarchy o Job titles o Reporting structures o Organizational charts  Sources of value in higher-ranked positions o Control over resources (power) o Deference in respect form subordinates (status)  Typically an assumption of legitimacy to the hierarchy exists o The hierarchy is based on the idea of meritocracy o The best people get to the top because they have the most merits, abilities or skills  Informal hierarchy  A rank order of individuals or groups that develops naturally on at least one valued social dimension  No clear social roles  Sources of value in higher-ranked positions o Influence over group decisions (power) o Greater attention from others (status) o Social power  An asymmetric control over valued resources in social relations  Based on resources as belonging a particular actor or social object  Can be claimed  Power hierarchy  Rank-ordering of individuals with respect to the amount of resources each controls o Social status  The extent to which an individual or group is respected or admired by others  Exists entirely in the eyes of others and is conferred by them  Cannot be claimed  Status hierarchy  A rank-ordering of individuals or groups according to the amount of respect accorded by others  Changes as the amount of respect for a target individual or group changes o Status hierarchies are more volatile and malleable than power hierarchies o If the status of the individual changes, so does the whole status hierarchy o Attention  Attention plays a key role in social hierarchies  Attention applies to both higher power and higher status individuals  We give more attention to higher ranked individuals  We pay less attention to lower-ranked individuals  Attention and power among humans  P and C interacted in dyads o Does the C have power over your resources? o Does this affect how much attention P gives to C?  The potential for P to receive a prize was either dependent on C or not dependent on C o P spent more time reading information about C if the outcome is dependent on C o P spent less time reading information about C if the outcome is independent on C  Attention and status among primates  Given a brief exposure to each image (high status or low status)  Trained to look one way to receive fruit juice or the other way to keep viewing the image  How much is juice sacrificed to spend their time looking at the images? o Amount of fruit juice sacrificed  When low status image, no juice sacrificed  When high status image, more juice sacrificed o Amount of viewing time  When low status image, less viewing time  When high status image, more viewing time  We pay attention to those that are higher status - Development of hierarchy
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