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Lecture 9

PSYB10 Lecture 9 Summary

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

INTERGROUP PROCESSES - Intergroup processes o Ingroup  A social group to which you belong  We have multiple ingroups that we can identify with o Outgroup  A social group to which you don’t belong o Intergroup processes  Situations, cognitions, beliefs, and feelings that arise when people from different groups interact with or think about each other - Social identity theory o A diffuse but interrelated set of social psychological theories about when and why individuals identify with and behave as a part of social groups o A person’s sense of who they are based on their group memberships o Assumptions  We all have a need for positive self-regard  We achieve this positive self-regard  Via our own achievements (but can take decades to achieve so might be a slow pathway)  Via identification with the achievements of the social groups we belong to o Components  Group categorization  People naturally group other social objects into groups  Creates distinction between ingroups and outgroups  Group categorization occurs rapidly and even trivially  Why do we categorize? o Cognitive miser perspective  We have limited cognitive that must be conserved  Engage in mental shortcuts (e.g., heuristics) o Categorize people on the basis of shared features o Can trivially create “minimal groups” o Minimal groups  Ingroups and outgroups formed on trivial, highly context-specific features o Minimal groups paradigm  Creating ingroups and outgroups from the most minimal of conditions  Meaningless distinctions between groups  Trigger a tendency to favour one’s own group  E.g., sandals versus sneakers on first day of class  E.g., blue versus yellow T-shirts distributed in lab  Overestimators and underestimators experiment  Ask participants to estimate the number of dots on the page  Randomly divided participants into groups o “Overestimators (O)” o “Underestimators (U)”  Ask participants to rate each group  Ask participants to allocate payment to ingroup or outgroup members  Results o O viewed U as less likeable, kind, and effective o U viewed O as less likeable, kind, and effective o O distributed less money to U o U distributed less money to O  Identification  The process of associating the self with certain ingroups  Boosts self-esteem if you think your group is good  Effects of social identity theory are dependent on identification with the group o If we do not identify with the ingroup, then less outgroup derogation  Comparison  We compare ingroups with outgroups  A favourable bias toward the group to which we belong  Ingroup favouritism o The belief that the ingroup is good across a variety of characteristics and is more deserving of good things o Maintains positive status of group (and positive self-regard) o Examples  Remember only the good (and not the bad) characteristics of group members  Allocate more resources to ingroup members  Extend self-serving attributions to ingroup members  Internal attribution for good behaviour by ingroup member  External attribution for bad behaviour by ingroup member  Outgroup derogation o The belief that the outgroup is bad across a variety of characteristics and is less deserving of good things o Examples  Ultimate attribution error  Our tendency to make dispositional attribution about an entire group o Relying too heavily on internal attributions can lead us to make attribution mistakes  Internal attribution for negative behaviour of an outgroup member  External attribution for positive behaviour of an outgroup member  We explain the behaviour of outgroup members in a way that perpetuates our stereotypes of them and fosters prejudice  Allocate less resources to outgroup members  Rate outgroup characteristics as less favourable than ingroup characteristics  Pay attention to information that confirms stereotypes and ignore information that is inconsistent with stereotypes  Psychological distinctiveness  People desire their ingroup to be unique and distinct from other groups  People see ingroup members as unique and distinct individuals o We see more differences among ingroup members than outgroup members  In the absence of distinctiveness, there is no basis for group-based positive self-regard - Realistic conflict theory o The theory that limited resources lead to conflict between groups o Result in increased prejudice and discrimination o Robber’s cave experiment  Stage 1  Only do activities with own group (increases group identity)  Stage 2  Create intergroup conflict  Engage in competitive sports with prizes for winning team (competing for scarce resources)  Competition creates outgroup prejudice o Name-calling boys in the other group o Raiding the other group’s cabin  More likely to approach and form friendships with ingroup members than outgroup members  Stage 3  Reduce intergroup conflict  Two potential methods: o Contact hypothesis  Intergroup contact reduces outgroup prejudice  E.g., arrange lunchtime seating so that boys from each team were intermixed o Super-ordinate goals  Both groups work together to solve a problem  E.g., bus stuck in the mud o Super-ordinate goals  A goal that is important to both groups  Hostility between groups decline  Formation of (more) new friendships with outgroup members  However, ingroup identification was hard to entirely eliminate  After these cooperative situations were introduced, the number of boys who said their closest friend was in the other group increased dramatically STEREOTYPING & PREJUDICE (CHAPTER 12) - Group-based bias o Cognitive component (stereotypes)  Stereotypes  A generalization about a group of people in which identical characteristics are assigned to virtually all members of the group o Stereotypes are both the positive and negative traits that people assign to members based solely on their membership in a particular social group  Beliefs or perceptions about the typical characteristics (usually traits) of group members  Stereotypes are schemas that we have to differentiate social groups  Stereotypes are resistant to change on the basis of new information  Stereotyping across time o The Princeton Trilogy  Three longitudinal studies of stereotypes about Americans, Japanese, Jews o Stereotypes are generally stable and consistent over time o Stereotypes are contextually bound  Cultural events and intergroup conflict change our perceptions of the group  Mechanisms o Usually broad and generalized called “trait-based” stereotype o Can also be dependent on context  Who stereotypes? o Most people have knowledge of cultural stereotypes o Egalitarian ideologies  Automatic processing of stereotypes  Stereotypes are automatically activated  Once the group categorization has occurred in the mind, then the stereotypes become more accessible  Occurs whenever an appropriate stimulus is encountered (e.g., member of a stereotyped group or stereotypical statement), causing the stereotypes for that group to be accessed from memory  Occurs without your awareness  Your thoughts are triggered by the presence of the stimulus  Controlled processing of stereotypes  The controlled process of stereotypes are activated in egalitarians  The person will preconsciously reject stereotypical judgements  The person makes a non-prejudiced response  The person does not rely on stereotypes  Occurs with your awareness  You choose to disregard or ignore the stereotyped information that has been brought to mind o Cognitive load  Greater use of cognitive resources  More reliance on stereotypes if cognitive load is high, even if egalitarian  E.g., egalitarian participants o Low load  rate white people and black people equally aggressive o High load  rate black people more aggressive than white people o The egalitarian participants are behaving in non-egalitarian ways o This suggests that people put a lot of effort into being egalitarian  Meta-stereotypes o Stereotypes about how outgroup members stereotype the ingroup o A person’s belief regarding the stereotype that outgroup members hold about their own group  E.g., how I think your group stereotypes my group  E.g., desire for your group not to stereotype my group  E.g., I am concerned about the stereotypes that you are applying to me o This is what outgroup members are thinking about you as being a member of your group  This interferes with your ability to interact with the outgroup and to successfully learn things about them because you are so focused on yourself  Consequences of stereotyping o Outcomes for perceiver  Move quickly through social world  Conserve cognitive resources  Selective encoding  The hardest form of memory retrieval is free recall  Participants performed better on memory task when using stereotypes o Participants recalled more stereotype consistent traits o Participants recalled the same amount of neutral traits  Attribution biases (the way we assign meaning)  The tendency to make attributions for people’s behaviour  Make more judgement errors  Correspondence bias o The tendency to make internal attributions about a person’s behaviour  Ultimate attribution error o The tendency to make internal (or dispositional) attributions about an entire group of people o When we act out the correspondence bias for a whole group of people o We apply the correspondence bias to entire groups of people o We explain the behaviour of outgroup members in a way that perpetuates our stereotypes of them and fosters prejudice o Outcomes for target  Health  Higher mortality rates, heart attacks, diastolic BP  Stereotype threat  The apprehension experienced by members of stereotyped groups that they may behave in a manner that confirms existing stereotypes  When presented with a threat, the pressure of trying to perform well, so as not to confirm the stereotype, actually causes them to perform in a way that confirms the stereotype in the end o E.g., African-American students tend to experience apprehension about confirming the existing negative cultural stereotype of intellectual inferiority  “If I perform poorly on this test, it will reflect poorly on me and on my race”  The burden of apprehension interferes with the student’s ability to perform well in these situations  The self-fulfilling prophecy is triggered by fears that one will confirm the stereotype of one’s group  Becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy o A behaviour or threat activates the stereotype related to that group, and that anxiety about confirming the negative stereotype interfered with performance  E.g., the male confederate’s dominant behaviour activated the stereotype that women are not very good at math and engineering, and that anxiety about confirming the negative stereotype interfered with the women’s performance  Math and engineering is negative stereotype about women  Their performance is affected  English is not a negative stereotype about women  Their performance on the English test is not affected after the male confederate’s behaviour  E.g., when women in male-dominated fields encounter dominant sexist behaviour, it makes them feel anxious about confirming the negative stereotype that women do not perform well in these domains, and the prophecy is fulfilled  Specificity o E.g., gender specificity  Women performance on a math test when told the study was to test male-female differences versus not being told o E.g., diagnostic of intellectual ability (race specificity)  Positively relevant to white people (stereotype lift)  Negatively relevant to black people (stereotype threat)  When no threat, there is no difference in ability to perform well on the GRE  When stereotype threat, black participants performed worse than the white participants o E.g., golfing performance  Sports intelligence is threat specific for black people (e.g., white people tend to have better strategy about sports)  Natural ability is threat specific for white people (e.g., black people tend to be stereotyped at being better at sports)  When the task was framed as measuring sports intelligence, white people performed better than black people  When the task was framed as measuring natural ability, black people performed better than white people  Complexity o E.g., East Asian women  Stereotype threat depends which group membership is salient  Race salient (e.g., describe being Asian)  Gender salient (e.g., describe being female)
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