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PSYB10H3 (543)


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY – LECTURE 1 Gordon Allport = social psychologist originally personality psychologist  Social psych uses scientific methods to explain how thoughts, feelings and behaviours are influenced by the presence of others (human beings said Allport) ABC’s of Social Psych:  AFFECT o Emotions, feelings, mood  BEHAVIOUR o Observable things-(speech) verbal and nonverbal action (what anyone knows about u comes from your behaviours)  COGNITION (about the social world) o How people think of others and apply to others they meet o Thought, sensation, perception, memory of people’s personality traits which shape what you experiences  People don’t need to be directly in front of you to influence you. o Ex1: what would my mom think of what I’m doing right now? (the imagined presence) o Ex2: remembering a bad situation with someone suddenly makes your heart race and feel as though you are reliving the moment again Behaviours are influenced by the presence of others (not just applicable to humans) ANIMALS-monkeys VS. HUMANS  Capution monkeys = like cucumbers but love grapes  Animals – focused on reward and punishments  Bartering task was performed: monkeys were taught a series of behaviours. Give the monkey a token, when monkey gives it back it gets food.  1) When one monkey gets more than the other or a grape instead of a cucumber, the other monkey refuses to play (inequity test). When they both get cucumbers (equity test), they both play and are content with reward  2) Humans: 1 person has 10 dollars and has to share with another. If other refuses offer, neither of them get money. Up until 25 years ago, person A would keep $9 and give $1 and person B would accept. Now, person B would refuse $1 (unfair) and neither of them would get $  3) Contagion of smiling. If you see a person smiling, you will usually smile back. Process important to survival. SECTIONS  Social Cognition 4 Lectures o The Self o Perceiving others o Interacting with others (tying the self and the other) o Attitudes and Persuasion  Group Processes o Conformity & Dissent o Social Roles and Norms – sets of expectations that society has for how we are supposed to behave (normative behaviour) : Stanford Prison Experiment  Interpersonal Processes o Emotions o Attraction and Close Relationships  Culture & Identity  Social Power & Hierarchy  Intergroup Relations – the study of stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination, how to cooperate with each other  Aggression  Prosocial Behaviour-why we hurt and why we help o Helping o Altruism  Stress & Health –your perceptions and interactions with others play into your health HISTORY OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY  Aristotle, Darwin, Machiavelli  Theory: Wundt & James  Triplett 1898: Social Facilitation  Kurt Lewin  WWII  Cultural Events  William James – Philosophy of mind o Father of Social Psychology st  Wundt: 1 experimental psych lab  1 experimental psych lab in Canada was at U of T by Mark Baldwin st  1 social psych experiment = 1898 by Triplett  Social Faciliation o Performance is affected by presence of others o Ex: cyclists have slower times when they train alone, or people who wind thread  Kurt Lewin o Father of Social Psychology o Perception and Cognition o Dyadic Interactionism  WW2 o Gov’t became interested in Social Psychology when WWI came around o Interested in persuasion and propaganda o The gov’t began to fund people who did research on attitudes and persuasion o If you bring a fearful message and then have a solution to that fear, it is very persuasive thing. (If you don’t have a solution-it’s a fail) Post-war: How did Nazi Germany happen? o Milgram’s “Obedience to Authority” experiment o Do you have to be a bad person in order to do bad things? No  Cultural Events o Kitty Genovese 1964 – spring o At least 39 witnesses but no one called the police because of bystander apathy/effect o Brutally murdered –went on for 40 minutes. Perpetrator left and returned o Jonestown Mass Suicide -1978 o Jones got many people to move to Guyana, attacked senator and killed them. Then decided to kill themselves to avoid repercussions (poisoned themselves and their children) o 907 people  Not every cult is bad but those that are have very systematic signs Methods Used in Social Psych (Social Psych Toolkit)  Self-Report/ Surveys o Computer o Interview o Pencil and paper  The more you collect self-report data, the more you realize everyone is different  Reaction Time Tasks o Computers o Stop watches o Video/audio Reaction times are supposed to capture speed of thought when exposed to a stimulus  Priming o Subliminally – you don`t recognize that you`ve seen it o Explicit priming o By activating certain concepts in your mind, related concepts are more likely to be activated  Nonverbal/verbal behaviour o Cameras o Audio recording o Close observation  Neuroscience o Functional MRI o Brain damaged patients o EEG  Psychophysiology o Spot & bands electrodes – to measure electrical activity of heart, blood flow o Temperature sensors o Saliva o Plethysmographs Research & Statistical Methods  Scientific Method o Hypothetico-deductive method – 5 step process 1) Examine past knowledge/research 2) Form a theory 3) operationalize the theory into a hypothesis 4) test hypothesis 5) revise theory  Variable Types - anything you measure that will vary across people o Dependent Variable =DV (what you are trying to predict –OUTCOME) o Independent Variable = IV (PREDICTOR) – only implies causation when it is manipulated  Correlational Designs o 2 variables (both are actually does not come first) o No experimental manipulation/people have not been exposed to 2 things o There is random sampling  Example of Correlational Design: Ice cream sales are highly correlated with drowning deaths rd  Ice cream does not cause drowning. There is a 3 variable. Both ice cream sales and swimming increase in the summer and therefore co-occur but do not relate.  With a correlational study = you can say covariance, prediction but not causality  Quasi-experimental Designs o Same(there is a defined predictor and outcome) but some difference = IV is not manipulated o Stratified random sampling (getting enough ppl from groups). o There always has to be an experimental and a control group o around age 3-4, kids develop Theory of Mind (kids think what they think is what you think too) o Example 1) : you show a child a bad of M&Ms and ask what he thinks is in it. He guesses M&Ms but when he opens it there are pencils. When asked what his dad will guess (who is not presently in the room), the child thinks the dad will guess pencils o Kids think we all share the same thoughts- they think you are coming from their perspective and don`t understand when you disagree with them  But the age is not what caused the theory of mind/the group membership did not cause those results  Experimental Designs o Manipulated IV o Always need a comparison/experimental and a control group  MDMA (ecstasy) Experiment : people on MDMA are not more likely to be mistaken when predicting emotions. If someone is happy they know they are happy however when predicting anger, people on MDMA are more incorre
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