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Lecture 11

Lecture 1 (Introduction) to Lecture 11 (Group Processes), s..
Lecture 1 (Introduction) to Lecture 11 (Group Processes), summer 2011 lecture notes (online)

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

Lecture 1 - Introduction - how you think about others and how others think about you - social psychology definition Gordon Allport, influential researcher - thoughts, feelings and behaviours are ABCs of social psych (affects: any kind of emotional experience; behaviour: broadly defined, anything outside yourself that others observe; cognition: how we think about others - Defn influenced by actual, imagined or implied presence of [others] example: video of two monkeys (capuchins) in cages where an experimenter does a basic learning experiment. If the monkey takes the token (given by the experimenter) and gives it back, they get a reward (monkey sees what other monkey is receiving). If other monkey gets a grape and he gets a cucumber, he throws it out of the cage/doesnt take it and eventually doesnt take the token (inequity aversion). [Capuchins like cucumbers, but like grapes even more] Lecture 2 Methods and Social Cognition - what makes psychology cool? Things we test are in the mind (not observable, such as length of leaves or bugs) and that is unique - Self reports: straight forward, ask things like how do you feel now? traditionally was done in pencil and paper but now is used in computers, can also straight up interview people - Reaction time tasks: speed of doing various tasks, reason was that a Dutch scientist basically identified that the harder a task is, longer it takes to do it (and this means the longer it takes, the more distant concepts are from each other) - Priming: essentially elicit a mood in you or make a certain concept available in your mind [either subliminal (which is something you wouldnt see, depending on stimulus which can range from 30milliseconds-100) or explicit (aware)] - Non/Verbal Behaviour: close observation, someone sitting close to you checking down things; better to record Page 1 - Neuroscience: MRI (fMRI) is good for localizing; brain-damaged patients shows how people observe social world - Psychophysiology: you can put a bunch of electrodes or have them drool and look at stress responses at various activities - Variable types: independent variable (IV) predictor only implies causality to DV when manipulated - three designs: - Correlation: if you are correlating two things they are both dependent, random sampling (ex: utsc students emails, assign numbers and select 100 random students); ice cream sales and amount of drowning are correlated because both occur in summer, doesnt mean that ice cream sales actually affects drowning rates, theres a relationship - Proper interpretation: if you have a correlation study they either predict each other or co vary with each other but cannot say they cause each other - Quasi-experimental designs: IV is not manipulated, use known groups (men and women are known because they exist, you dont assign people these groups); need to know how one groups responses relates to another groups responses (which is why you need comparison/control groups) - Experimental designs: have to create changes (manipulate IV) - MDMA (ecstasy), (profs friend from Berkley) randomly gave people MDMA or a pure amphetamine (placebo) and looked at six basic emotion faces; found that people were not more accurate of guessing others faces emotions when on MDMA, but were significantly less accurate when perceiving anger (??) - controlled cognition: take a test, put focus down on test; automatic cognition: associative processes, think about doctors and also think about nurses (dont mean to think about them, but is relevant) - if I have a gun, it catches your eye out of the whole scene (pre-attentive processes) - gaze detection: we usually look at face that is looking back at us - Schemas: set of expectations; sometimes we dont notice things that dont fit schema and Page 2 even interpret things differently - if student thinks teacher is gifted they will act differently towards them (self-fulfilling prophecies shown in educational settings) - Elenor Rosch: taught us how we think and categorize, essentially she argued that we categorize things based on prototypes - more distant it is from prototype of chair, longer it takes to recognize it as a chair - thinking about one concept, activates related concepts (unrelated concepts are harder to think of) - Suppression effects when prof said dont think of white bear for the next minute, you think of it; the very act of not wanting to think about the white bear, makes it more accessible, suppressed thought becomes hyper accessible - start with anchor and adjust away from it (elephants pregnancy, compare to humans (9 months) elephant should be about 12 months since its bigger (in actuality its two years) - simulation heuristic, in a hockey game and not a lot of people and sit closer to the front, the seat you were sitting in before won $10,000. Because that seat was yours, you can simulate winning which makes you feel worse; people who miss their flights by five minutes feel worse than thirty minutes, because they envision getting to the gate more and simulate it more Lecture 3 The Self part one - the self is a concept (something you can think about) but more broadly defined in social psych, individual consciousness of ones own identity - Mark test, when you look at mirror do you see it as yourself, or another person (self awareness present/absent); put paint on babys cheek and have them engage in a room with a mirror (does baby reach out to baby in mirror or their own cheek) prior to one years old babys dont look at own cheek but at the mirror, orangutan has a sense of self (most primates dont pass the mark test) - any animal can have the three levels of self, but we reserve it for animals with high level Page 3 social structures - minimal self: double simulation feel arm with hand, you can feel your arm on hand and hand on arm, but if you touch anything else (podium) we can only feel the podium (single simulation) and through these types of simulation exploration, in early child life, will learn about the self -objectified self: once you become a social object - symbolic self: not only can you reflect on yourself, but you can use words (uniquely human) - if we think about self, why are we talking about that in social psychology? Without the presence of others, theres no need for the concept of self - all the self is just a concept - Twenty statements test (TST): simply asked to fill in adjectives/roles; personality descriptors (individual), social roles (a part that you play); if everything you list is distinct from each other (not like messy and disorganized, which is related) we would say you have a complex self - Implicit personality test: measure time to press me or not me, if you think youre more studious than messy you will press me fast to studious - Markus (1977), gave traits and asked how much it describes them, than did implicit personality test what she found was: - people who really feel that they were independent/autonomous, they were really fast with words like independent in the implicit test - people who were dependent, took long to say me in the implicit test to things even if they identified with it before - when people were saying not me to independence synonyms, people who were independent took longer to say not me (had confusion to say not me) - self concept is contextually bound, context changes who you are and how you behave - people who filled out contextualized (I am __ statements) feel better after a failure test than those who filled out the global statements Page 4
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