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PSYB10 Lecture 1 Methods and cognition.docx

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

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Overview and Methods of Social Psychology • Social Psychology  to understand and explain how the thought, feeling and behaviour of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of [others] • ABCs of Social Psychology  Affect• Emotions, feelings, and mood  Behaviour• Verbal and nonverbal action  Cognition• Thought, sensation, perception, processing, and memory • History of Social Psychology Theory:who stared social psyc  James-philosophy in theory of mind..started a bit of science in psyc o Wundt- first to establish psyc lab in Germany ..mark Baldwin in Toronto  Lewin-father of social interation -cognitive psychologist, but gets into how ppl perceve others(perception) -dyadic interactionism  Triplett 1898-First social psyc exp. Covered in text -social facilitation-(performance effected by performance of othrs) -cyclists train less time if by self/winding thread or the othr way wher determ by person skil o WW2: Government interest in Social Psychology -Persuasion and Propaganda could be used for good and bad..victory bonds,rascism..from attitudes and persuasion -Key Social Psychologists funded to study effective War Bond Ads o Social psyc..Driven by cultural events…milgrims study -kitty Genovese-bystander apathy -jonestown • Hypothetico-deductive Scientific Method/Experimental Method 1. Examine past knowledge/research 2. Form a theory 3. Operationalize the theory into a hypothesis 4. Test hypothesis 5. Revise theory • Dependent and Independent Variables o DV: predict/explain o IV: the outcome only implies causation when it is manipulated…always understudy • Causal inference based on research design • Research Designs -Wont test on specific design:the 3 of them Key thing u need to noe is proper interpretation: the diff b/w causality and causation •Correlational Designs  2 Dependent variable’s -No experimental manipulation -Random sampling -Covariance and prediction -No causality • Quasi-experimental designs o A defined “predictor” and “outcome” - IV is not manipulated  “Known groups” IV (e.g., sex, ethnicity, nationality) - Stratified random sampling - Comparison/Control Group - i.e. Theory of mind:3-4 yrs Don’t realize tht ppl hv separate thoughts(ethnocent)…Cant directly say tht the age cause the theory of mind.. - Covariance and Prediction  Discuss differences, but no causality • Experimental designs -Manipulated IV(s) -Random assignment to condition -Comparison/Control group i.e.MDMA-extasy hypothesis…wud hv improvmnts in detecting emotion…researched showed tht ppl who took extasy cant rlly detect anger…nd no improvmnts - IV causes DV • Internal and External Validity • Ethical issues in social psychology • Informed consent • Deception • Debriefing Social Cognition Social Cognition  thinking bout a social obj • Social objects  able to think bout othrs nd look upon them..dont have access to othr ppls thoughts..extra forces we cant observe(internal world)  A physical object that has the ability to engage in social cognition • Automatic thinking • Controlled Thinking • Perception  Becoming aware of something through the sense • Pre-attentive processes  Something that “catches your eye” or “pops out at you” • Gaze detection - attend to cert
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