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Lecture 2

PSYB10 Lecture 2 Self and self regulation.docx

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

The Self The Self  concept of who you are,individ,conscious identity (behavr,feelings,thoughts) • Self Awareness  aware tht self is distinct obj. from othr ppl and enviro - tested with the Mark Test (AKA “Rouge Test”) • Mark Test  ;Exposed child to mirror,when they don’t pay attention they put a mark on their face o ;Once mark on face,will they recognize its them or sum1 else?  Usually points on their own cheek(indicates know its self)  Humans passed AND Origutans pass this test(primate) o ;But other primates not so much(baboon) clear distinction of the self and the other • Self-awareness theory ;Ppl pass this test by 1yr and a half ……Theory of mind-3-4yrs of age. Realize tht complete distinct persondiff thoughts ; Self awareness a level below tht,before u understand tht ppl thoughts and feelings are ;diff from you u hav to understand from basic level first • Levels of the self 1. Minimal self  Conscious experience of the Self as distinct from the environment - All animals have - (conscious of self-esteem distinct from enviro(dbl stmulation)..when touch sumthing not me(i.e.podeum on hand..u wud feel tht podium on hand insetad of hand on podium) vs. if we touch ourselves 2. Obj self-  Cognitive capacity to serve as the object of one’s own (or others’) attention - (mark test),cognitive ability to reflect for self..recognition of attention(for self nd others)..basic forms of social cognition 3. Symbolic Self ( “Narrative Self”)  Ability to form an abstract mental representation of oneself through language - only humans hv cause..ascribed traits of who we are.(i.e. cause complex language-tell a story bout our lifes) • Self-concept & Self-Schema Self-concept-  who you are in ur mind in ur semantic network ;everything u noe bout urself(Includes qualities, identities, roles, etc) ./……….but we really protect this self-concept, self-schema- - Cognitive representation of the Self-Concept  The concepts/words in your semantic network that are associated with your sense of Self - Guides processing of self-related information • Twenty Statements Test  (measure self-concept;oldest approach) - ;20 sentence with starting of I am… - ;quantitfy and code for statements;w/ proportion of indiv.qualities(personality descriptors roles/collective qualitites(athlete,bestfriend,parent..connection to othr ppl…..involvemtn of othr ppl) - Or add stimuli to subsequent parts of the experiment..nd then(add another task) nd prime these words as stimuli..nd expect u wud behave in accordance with ur attitude..prim of self - ;there are diff( the book) • Implicit Measurement of Self-Concept - ;markus who also invented the self-scehma - ;if associate with concept of me with a trait very strongly...u shud recognize it faster in reaction time but when trait pops up not ascribe to self(i.e.cruel)..u shud also be quick too - ;measures distance from self vs. the positive words nd the negative words - ;experiemtn..subj.first took personality test, nd divided the ppl independent vs.dependent vs.non-schema(no even think bout independent)..  the experiemtn focus on how independent a person will be….independent were the fastest to respond(me) nd the dependent(took them the longest for a trait tht describe themselv)….  the independent took them a bit longer when showed independent trait even though explicit tht describes them • Self-reference effect • Self-perception theory • Overjustification Effect • Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation • Task-contingent Rewards • Performance-contingent Rewards • Looking-glass self • Self-complexity  operationalized as the number of distinct aspects used to define the Self- Concept - (i.e.the 20 test…will be more clumped together..less complex self concept vs.) • Global and Contextualized Self-Concept - Global-;”I am”measure the self-concept in a globalized way - Contextualized;I am when”we hav diff views of ourself and ratings in diff context ;buffers negative feedback after failure i.e. (took first self context test(won’t show same drop as global)..cause diffr situation didn’t feel good doesn’t necessarily mean u wud fail in the next situation ;nd we do seem to see the world in context sense • Working Self-Concept  A subset of your Self-Concept that is presently accessible like working memory,...certain aspects will be more or less accessible with whts currently going on What goes in the working self-concept? o Recently primed aspects of Self-;recent-more activated o Contextually distinctive -aspects less activated(when away from context) o “Central” aspects of Self- chronically accessible traits..thouse things ambuigously apply to ourself..will always be there Self-Concept Centrality  Some aspects of the Self-Concept are more personally important to you than others - “Central” aspects are chronically accessible in the semantic network; always in working self-concept - measure w/bulls-eye task(me in the centre, close to the centre is the central) nd the further away is will measure with ruler or computer..tht is away from the centre..measure by distance Consequences: o Self-Evaluative Maintenance o Self-Handicapping o Self-Verification • Self-Evaluative Maintenance - we hv a positive desire to self-evulate ourselves - onli applies if tht person is close to you If someone close to you outperforms you in a particular domain, then: 1. You will be threatened if the domain is central to your Self-Concept o Distance Self from relationship o Distance Self from task domain(like social psychology is like whatever) 2. You will be proud if the domain is not central to your Self-Concept o Vicarious self-esteem boost - proportional to closeness of relationship …all has to do with closeness nd the non-centralitity of the domain  Self-Handicapping  Strategy to buffer the self cause anticipate u are going to fail on sumthing tht is central to who u are by undermining one’s own performance  .…ppl more or less (engage in processes tht set them up to it wud be the situation tht failed not u. ppl do this systematically) ;experiment-1999,participant take test of diagnostic or invalid test(no related to ur success)…cassette tapes(differs by help performance or worsen performance)..question is which tape wud the participants choose…the participants who were told tht it was a diagnostic test they systematically chosethe single red tape tht will worsen their performance .. - demonstarte if more central identitity the more they chose sumthing tht will hurt their it won’t hurt as bad if thye do bad • Self-verification  The need to seek confirmation of one’s Self-concept - Motivated by desire to be understood - Holds true even if Self-concept is negative … but only for traits that are central to the SelfConcept …….for those who are close to us..we want them to know them so they correctly attribute us…strongly motivated to let them noe…for smoother interaction -study,on depression involves negative self-view is chronically accessible..assum in this study tht depressed ppl want
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