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Lecture 3

PSYB10 Lecture 3 Perceiving and predicting othrs and social interaction.docx

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

Lec3 Perceiving and Predicting Others • Types of social information(wht goes into person perception) o behaviour(it is this tht ppl noe who u are) o context(effect how they interpret ur behvr) o schemas(expectation how we view othr ppl) • Behaviour non-verbal behavr(gestures..body language…these settle behvrs normally not aware of) • Nonverbal behaviour • Emblems o link b/w verbal and non-verbal behavr  widely accepted gestures tht are so well understood..serve purpose as words..non-verbal language o cultually-bound (i.e.peace sign in Canada vs. Australia means giving a middle fingr)…not a logo on shirt..not a gesture • Thin Slices  Ppl can be surprisingly accurate attributions bout person (i.e.)personality) after brief exposure of a persons behavr..only for sumthings..esp on unobservable demographic characteristics(SES);if cud categorize ppl in ambiguous social groups by onli face(groups tht u didn’t noe tht they belong to)..tend to pickup these group membrships bove chance(64%)..however,not a single face in the study was 100%straight or target was 100% accuracy • Context o -provides additional info.cuz person perception is so complex..makes us more accurate judges o -cud completely chng attribution of wht occured • Schemas o -inpretation of othr ppl nd in social interaction o -wht u expect from nothr person is usually wht u perceive from them even when tht info is attitudinal • Attribution  Explanation for an observed behaviour of a social object Attribution Theory o Internal/External Attributions o Fundamental (?) Attribution Error - Covariation Theory • Automaticity of attributions - we srt to make the explanations very quickly - Attributions = Pattern Matching; (like schema and behavr)..the skit as love triangle if noe love triangle schema study;humans hav a fundamental desire to make the explanations…demonstrates the primacy of social attribution..100% of the participants viewed the skit as representing a very high-level of social process….anti-pomorphized the skit of shapes as ppl..showed tht attribution..almost instantaneously(reason of the behvr is cause of them or the situation they found themselv in) • Attribution Theory • Internal and External Attributions Internal:Attributing a person’s behaviour to something intrinsic to that person (consistent with that person personality, disposition, attitude, or character ) External:Attributing a person’s behaviour to something about the situation in which the behaviour occurred(nething outside the person. ..not consistent with the person) - Specifically not changing beliefs regarding person’s character or personality …..we tend to make internal attribution for nothr persons behvr • Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE) When perceiving others: - Tendency to overestimate the influence of internal causes for behaviour and underestimate external causes(not nough talent nd prep for getting job) When perceiving self: - Much more likely to attribute own behaviour to external causes -expanded on correspondence bias -study;essay …the blue line..ppl given external attribution for the essay they read..shows tht they take in account for the external attri..results.they were not sufficiently taken into account..they still assume the internal.(onli if blue line is flat then no FAE) • Actor/Observer difference • Cultural Variability in FAE • Explanations for FAE 1. Perceptual Salience 2. Anchoring & Adjustment Heuristic Perceptual salience- over-estimate the causal role (salience) of information we have available to us.(the info we are observing of the behavr.) - what we pay attention to In the enviro comes of our conclusion of tht behvr(…when u behave u cant see urself…thts why underestimate) • Two-step process of attribution FAE occurs through the same process as Anchoring & Adjustment Heuristic: …by considering situational constraints 1. Make an internal attribution( cause of correspondence bias leads us be anchored to internal attribute for the behavr we observed in another person) 2. Attempt to adjust away from internal attribution (we don’t adjust far enough,if we do then no FAE) • Correspondence bias  Tendency to infer that a person’s behaviour corresponds to their disposition,personality, or attitude..who they are..underestimate the stuation(when perceiving others) • Covariation theory: Assumption: People are lay statisticians(take factors in our head)  Complex way to predict external and internal attribution and spontaneous attribution(randomness) 3 factors: 1. Consensus(do othr ppl behave in this way?..) Behaviour unique to person 2. Distinctiveness(does this person behave like this with similar but diff stimuli) Behaviour unique to situation 3. Consistency(is it consistent ovr time) Behaviour unique to this mom
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