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Lecture 4

PSYB10 Lecture 4 Attitudesand persuasion and conformity.docx

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

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Lec4 Attitudes & Persuasion • Attitudes • Definition  A like or dislike toward someone or something Attitude Object  The “target” of the attitude; the thing about which you hold an Attitude can be a thing, person, place, or even an idea • ABCs Affective: (emotion)What you feel about something Behavioural: What you are likely to do Cognitive: What you think about something • What goes into an attitude o Valence  Bipolar dimension from good to bad o Strength - Intensity of the attitude(How “arousing” the object is) Cud have similar lvl of valence but differing strength(i.e. bad valence for attitude in terms of intensely differs) • Attitude types Explicit attitudes  A like or dislike toward an object that is stored in the form of a statement and of which you are fully aware and you always know (i.e. feel really confident of timmies,obvious u r confident) • Explicit attitudes are propositions “A statement or assertion that expresses a judgment or opinion” Implicit attitudes  A like or dislike toward an object stored as an association in your semantic network (i.e.war,famine..hunger associate with badness vs.flower associate goodness) - The association is between the object and your concepts of “good” and “bad” - may not be aware of your implicit attitudes - Measure with reaction time • Attitudes and Behaviour o Your Belief About Something o Your Behaviour in Relation to That Thing Both connects • Theory of planned behaviour • Cognitive dissonance  A change in people’s behaviour alters their attitudes (Dissonance) experience unpleasant tension when: o experience contradictory attitudes(i.e.friend like Justin nd u lov Justin.create tension internally) o behave inconsistently with your attitudes attitude( hates Justin so engage like u hate..but go home say like) To relieve this tension ... 1. change your attitude since you cannot change your behaviour-match the behavr(how we act chngs our behavr….i.e.actually find out u don’t really like Justin anymore).. ,1$(most imp.for cognitive dissonance…has to chng attitude to be congruent with the lie tht they told..least reapprase) 2. reappraise the situation so that your behaviour no longer indicates anything about your attitudes(peg board task boring..participant ask either to receive 20$( can reappraise ) • Overjustification effect  If one can justify an attitude-inconsistent behaviour, then they will not experience dissonant feelings(hv explained it enough feautures don’t need to chng ur attitude to reduce) • External appraisal for cause of dissonance • Ironic effects of overjustification: - Disengagement from tasks that you genuinely enjoy if rewarded extrinsically for them • Justification of Effort External justification • Internal justification • Counter-attitudinal advocacy • Insufficient punishment • Rationalization Trap • Self-affirmation theory • Post-decision dissonance  Dissonance aroused after making a decision, typically reduced by: 1. Enhancing the attractiveness of the chosen alternative 2. Devaluing the rejected alternatives Study:Spreading of alternatives;two things competing nd seem like equal..then choose the thing..but then the one u didn’t choose seems the most derrigating • Liking o Positively valence attitude and always bout an obj • Balance Theory  To reduce cognitive dissonance, we desire to keep a positive “balance” comparing between our opinions and those of others (always involve self,attitude obj, nd a close person(friend) Options when unbalanced: 1. Try to change friend’s attitude 2. Change your attitude toward the issue(usual) 3. Change your liking of your friend(hard) • Attitude change Persuasion  The altering of an existing attitude or the adoption of a new attitude • Persuasion / Persuasive communication • Yale Attitude Change Approach • Methods of persuasion • Heuristic-systematic model of persuasion • Routes of Persuasion / Elaboration Likelihood Model Central route to Persuasion When a person invests the necessary decision-making time and effort to evaluate the evidence and logic behind each persuasive message (who is communicating also for the receivers end too) Peripheral route to Persuasion  When people attend to indirect factors to make a decision about a persuasive message (e.g., speaker’s appearance) - don’t hv to do with attitude itself but the emotions nd social norms • 6 tendencies to say “Yes” 1.Reciprocity NormA social norm stating that we should try to repay in kind what another person has given us(power of a gift) - Prescription for a Behave tht a culture has..a normative behavr(everybody does) - Also cud taken advantage of in persuasion(i.e.sample a piece ..feel more obligated to purchase) 2.ConsistencyPeople will go to extremes to try to appear consistent in their behaviour - Public commitments are powerful determinants of behaviour - All humans hv desire to be consistent Study:reservations w/incl.yes I will..reduce to 10% of no shows.;…highlight commitment 3.Social ProofWe follow the lead of similar others, and accept “personal stories” as proof of a product’s promises (i.e.weight loss susan lost 30lbs,seems for ppl to prov tht it may actually work) - effective means of persuasion - used as pieces of information for decision-making …reason why this cause it will help us understand ourselv..nd goes into the pro column 4.LikingIf you like someone, you are more likely to do what they want you to do i.e.friends selling to friends - Understand this by balance theory 5. Authority/CredibilityWe are much more likely to be persuaded if we perceive the source of the persuasive message to be credible or respectable (i.e.celebrity(also a cross of liking) or actors dressed in labcoats) ..Study:jaywalk with a person wearing a suit vs. a normal person 6. ScarcityAn item or opportunity becomes more desirable as it becomes less available The thinking of not able to make the choice later ..hv to to do now(i.e.liquidation outlets) ..the demand stays the same..but saying tht the supply is going away..making the demand increases • Persuasion StrategiesStaright-up tactis Door-in-the-faceFirst make sum1 refuse a larg unreasonalble req..the person will be more likely to accept a smaller genral req. Foot-in-the-doorOpp.of door-in face after done smallr req. ..more likely to accept lrgr - Wrks thru the desire for being consistent ….Study(first sign pertition..then more likely to agree put sign on lawn) Low-balling Inducing a customer to agree to purchase a product at a low cost, and then increasing the price at the last minute - Relies on consistency - The chng price not product Bait-and-switchDrawing someone in by making a desirable offer, but then changing the deal or switching the terms at the last minute o chng product not price That’s Not AllHad original offer,with additional offers..makes morelikely to buy sumthing u wudn’t h
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