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May 26, 2012 Lecture 4: Attitudes, Persuasion, Conformity and Dissent Readings- (CH.6) - What are attitudes – a like or dislike that influences our behaviour toward someone or something - Valence of an attitude – an idea or belief that you hold positivity in which you subscribe something positively or negatively - ABCs – Affective - what you feel about something Behavioural – what are you likely to do? Cognitive – what you think about something - Valence – bipolar dimension good (better) vs bad (worse) - Strength – intensity of an attitude - You can have similar valences of attitudes but differ in strength (both are independent dimensions ) - 2 types of attitude- explicit and implicit - Explicit attitude – attitudes you can state in words , fully aware of your attitudes - Implicit attitude – stored as an association in your semantic network = associating between the object and the concepts of good or bad - peace, flowers represent good things while war, famine represent bad things - The common belief - What you believe about something will directly affect and predict your behaviour of that something however, your behaviour toward something can also change your attitude of that something - Cognitive dissonance (Festinger) – a change in people’s behaviour alters attitudes - Dissonance – unpleasant feeling of tension that occur when you experience contradictory attitudes (conflict that causes conflict – you really enjoy Jennifer Lopez music however your best friend really dislikes her music = tension) - To relive this tension – you change your attitude since you cannot change your behaviour or, you reappraise the situation so that your behaviour no longer indicates anything about your attitudes - over justification effect – if one can justify an attitude inconsistent behaviour, then they will not experience dissonant feeling - How we act, changes our behaviour - STUDY (Festinger & Carlsmith) – participants were told to turn wooden pegs for 40 miniutes (exteremly boring tasks) - After the 40 min, during the de-briefing of the experiment they mention 1/3 condition to each participant a. “Alright I’ll give you $20 extra, if you tell the next participate t that this experiment was actually really interesting and enjoyable” b. “Alright I’ll give you $1 extra, if you tell the next participate that this experiment was actually really interesting and enjoyable” c. control condition – just a thank you for participating - one week after the experiment, experimenters called all the participants and asked how they found the experiment and the quality of the experiment - results – the people who got paid $1 enjoyed the experiment most – try to become congruent with the lie they told and the behaviour they represented 1 - $20 condition was more of a reappraisal condition - Post decision dissonance – dissonance aroused after making a decision typically reduced by enhancing the attractiveness of the chosen alternative or devaluing the rejected alternatives - STUDY Post decision dissonance , Brehm 1956 – housewife comes and uses 1 of 3 desirable kitchen items – toaster, coffee-maker and waffle iron - Housewives rated the items (most liked to least liked ), the experimenters took the top 2 that housewives choose and randomly gave the wives one of the top 2 items they had selected - 20 min later - One more time rating of the same items = observe the changes in rating after receiving one of the item - Results – the item chosen for them – mild increase in rating, and the ratings for what they didn’t’ get were much lower - Liking – positively valenced attitude - Balance theory – to reduce cognitive dissonance, we desire to keep a positive “balance” between our opinions and those of others - In balance = (+) +(+) + (+) = positive (you like your friend, and both like JLO) - Un- balance = (+) + (+) = (-) = negative ( you like JLO, you like your friend but your friend dislikes JLO = imbalance) - Few options – you can try to change your friend’s attitude about JLO or you can change your attitudes about the issue (in this case JLO) or you can change how much you like your friend (now it won’t matter if you and your friend’s opinions match) - Attitude change – persuasion - Persuasion - the altering of an existing attitude or the adaption of a new attitude - Routes of persuasion Central route – when a person invests the necessary decision making time and effort to evaluate the evidence and logic behind each persuasive message Peripheral Route – when people attend to indirect factors to make a decision about a persuasive message (e.g. speaker’s appearance) - Reciprocity norm – a social norm stating that we should try to repay in kind what another person has given us ( I give you a gift, so you give me something in return) - Consistency – people will go to extremes to try to appear consistent in their behaviour - Social proof – we follow the lead of similar others and accept “personal stories” as proof of a product’s promises - Other peoples “stories” is a very effective means of persuasion - The experiences of others are used as pieces of information for decision making - Study – on a cold winter newy York morning, a man stops on a busy stop side walk and gazed skyward for 60 sec at nothing in particular - IV – varied # of skyward lookers - Results - As you get more people, more other people are going to follow suit the initial people - Liking – if you like someone, you are more likely to do what they want you to do (e.g. Michael Jordan like Nike so we like Nike and buy Nike shoes) - Tupperware parties – close friends gather for a party, party is organized by Tupperware and friends sell to friends - Authority and credibility – we are much more liklet to be persuaded if we perceive the sourse of the persuasive message to be credible or respectable (e.g. celebrities, actors dressed in lab coats) - Study – whether they can get people to jade-walk - Condition A. a guy in a suit jade walks - Condition B. same guy jade walks but with different attire, this time with jeans and tee 2 - Results – 3.5 times as many pedestrians followed him when he wore a suit and tie - Thus we follow who appear to be more creditable – suit = authority - Scarcity – an item or opportunity becomes more desirable as it becomes less available (e.g. liquidation sales ) Persuasion Strategies 1. Door in the face technique – persuader attempts to convince the respondent to comply by making a large request that the respondent will most likely turn down; much like a metaphorical slamming of a door in the persuader's face. The respondent IS then more likely to agree to a second, more reasonable request, compared to the same reasonable request made in isolation 2. Foot in the door technique – after agreeing to a small request, people are more likely to agree to a larger request than they might have been without the first small request Study – ask homeowners moderate request – put “drive carefully” sign on lawns, ask some homeowners for
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