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University of Toronto Scarborough
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June 18, 2012 Lecture 6 - Emotion and Morality Readings textbook – pp. 91 -96 o Cognition is strongly influenced by our emotions and emotions is a form of cognition o Mortality – decision making in emotionally context o Emotion – a brief (4 min) physiological and psychological response to an event that is felt subjectively and prepares a person for action o All emotions have action tendencies o What is not an emotion  moods (is just a general state that has emotional components but is not a emotion as moods last a long time and sometimes you don’t know why you feel good (no reason/lack of stimulus, )  sentiments - expressing sentiments, it’s more of general feeling and can last a long time  personality traits - ones personality is not a specific emotion that one had – not thinking about the stimulus that causes an emotion “he an angry person” vs “he found out that the study group got cancelled and he got really angry”  Arousal - (e.g. sleepiness, blood flow) – more of a general state and does not come from a stimulus (if it comes from a stimulus than it is an emotion) o Moods are diffuse – don’t need to have an eliciting cause, don’t need a target (thus don’t call for action) and moods persist over time Classes of emotions 6 basic emotions - - These Basic emotions are by Ekmin, he argued that these 6 emotions are the fundamental building blocks of everything we experience as an emotion Fear, Anger, Disgust, Sadness, Happiness and Surprise - Complex emotions – blends of basic emotions o Positive emotions - positively valenced emotions (mostly complex o Gratitude (express appreciation) , contentment (satisfaction of what you have and what you don’t have) , amusement (humor), desire (something you want- approach motivated emotion ) and love o Some people argue that love is not an emotion as its long term and a stimulus is not always required o Self conscious emotions - emotions tied/elicited among the self – Pride, shame, guilt and embarrassment Measuring emotions - Self report - Facial EMG – muscles in our face that are tied in with our emotions Lavator Labil – disgust 1 Currogator supercili (brow muscles – ends up covering your eyes) – negative affect Orbicularis oculi (circular muscles around the eye) and zygomaticus major muscle – positive affect - Captures subtle facial movements - Best used for situations where facial movement is not visually detectable - Obstrusive measurement technique - Facial action coding system (FACS) - is a system to taxonomize human facial expressions, Movements of individual facial muscles are encoded by FACS from slight different instant changes in facial appearance. - zygomaticus major muscles are involved in all positive affect (emotions) - Conflict – fake (only zygomaticus muscle activity) vs. genuine smiles (zygomaticus and Orbicularis oculi activity) Components of emotion - Temporal component, Physiological component ,cognitive component and Behavioral component - – an emotion is a universal, functional, reaction to an external stimulus event, temporarily integrating physiological, cognitive, phenomelogical, and behavioral channels to facilitate a fitness –enhancing, environment shaping response to a current situation Physiology and emotion - Peripheral nervous system – everything outside of your brain and spinal cord - PNS is divided into 1. Sympathetic and 2. Parasympathic nervous system - Heart rate, skin conductance, projection period( time b/w your heart beats and your heart expels blood) and finger temperature (more relaxed your are – finger temp increases) - Physiology= intensity of emotions – arousal - Central Nervous system – certain areas of the brain that are equipped Hippocampus – Laughter Limbic system – Amygala – fear and anger Frontal cortex – everything else James Lange Theory of emotion - Specific bodily (physio) response tells us what emotion we are feeling - emotions occur as a result of physiological reactions to events - “According to this theory, witnessing an external stimulus leads to a physiological reaction. Your emotional reaction depends upon how you interpret those physical reactions. For example, suppose you are walking in the woods and you see a grizzly bear. You begin to tremble and your heart begins to race. The James-Lange theory proposes that you will interpret your physical reactions and conclude that you are frightened ("I am trembling, therefore I am afraid.")” - If your sad, you should smile which would make you feel better 2 - Study – feedback to the system – method – 1. Tell participants to pose face in certain ways (which specific muscles to move around) 2. Ask them what expressions they are demonstrations and then 3. Measure physiological responses - Results – participants were readily able to demonstrate their emotions Cognitive components - Cognitive appraisal – the meaning of an event affects our emotional response it - (e.g. getting punched – someone punches you to hurt you – you get angry however, if someone by mistake hits you –then that doesn’t evoke anger emotions ) - Key appraisals o self relevance how relevant an event is to you o goal congruence how much does the event co aside with your own goals o blame and responsibility o Certainty – how sure you are about the appraisal (how correctly you appraise a situation) o Coping ability – how much your able to cope with a situation TWO-Factor Theory (opponent of James Lange Theory) - 1. Physiological Arousal is generalized, NOT specific - 2. We apply a label to the arousal (amplitude of response)based on cognitive appraisal - how You feel aroused and then you wonder why your aroused (which you try to explain), that explanation leads to your emotion - If we didn’t have words for sadness and fear then those emotions would not exist - Perceives the bear, heart starts beating – “my heart is beating because I am afraid of the bear) - Study Schacter & Singer (1964) – method – 1. Give people heart rate increasing pill or placebo (sugar pill) 2. Have them complete a survey with very personal questions 3. An actor gets angry at the questionnaire 4. What does the participant do? -
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